SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Parsons, D.G. and Brasier, M.D. (1987) Change in Planktonic and Benthonic Foraminifera through Campanian-Maastrichtian Phosphogenic Cycles, Southwest Atlas. In: Hart, M.B., Ed., Micropaleontology of Carbonate Environment, 111-120.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Stratigraphic Correlation between Subsurface Maastrichtian Digma Formation and Safra Unit from Outcrop Sections, Western Desert of Iraq

    AUTHORS: Ibrahim Q. Mohammed, Fadhil A. Lawa

    KEYWORDS: Maastrichtian, Digma Formation, Safra Unit, Western Iraq

    JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Geosciences, Vol.8 No.9, September 29, 2017

    ABSTRACT: In this work we try to clarify, and correlate between two Maastrichtian aged units, namely Digma and Safra Units from selected sections in western desert of Iraq. Taking in consideration the stratigraphic code of NASCENT (2005), and the results of previous studies, nine criteria have been used for the correlation, as follow: 1- From lithostratigraphic point of view, Digma Formation (Fm.) mostly composed of dark grey to blackish gray, uniform Carbonates-dominated facies, while Safra unit is characterized by light yellowish brown mixed phosphatic- siliceous-siliciclastics and carbonates facies. 2- Digma Fm. is characterized by Benthonic foraminifera assemblages (Bulimmina sp., Siphogerinoides sp. & Bolivinoides sp. ), while Safra phosphatic unit is flourished by macrofossils assemblages and vertebrates (Oyster, fish teeth’s and bones). 3- The upper and lower boundaries of the Digma Fm. are conformable, and vice versa for Safra Unit. 4- Illite/Semctite mixed layers-Illite clays assemblage and Glauconitic are predominates in Digma Fm., while Sepiolite-palygorskite-Montmorillonite, are common in Safra Unit, without any Glauconitic mineralization. 5- Digma Fm. slightly influenced by neomorphism and micritization. On other hand, Safra facies extremely influenced by phosphatization, silicification, dolomitization, and neomorphism and carbonate-silica replacement of the original evaporate minerals. 6- The predominated foraminiferal wackestone and mudstone microfacies, within Digma facies associations, mostly indicate deep trough marine condition (Anah Graben). The mixed phosphatic-carbonates (Oyster coquina band) and siliciclastics facies, (occasionally cross laminated), mostly deposited in shallower water depth, on the Arabian platform and distal steepened ramp towards Rutba flanks. 7- Sequence boundary of type one and three is bounded the Safra Unit respectively from upper and lower parts. 8- Continuously deposited Sequence was detected from the parasequences of the Safra facies, and across Maastrichtian/Danian boundary (Trafawi Unit). 9- The paleo-configuration of the basin almost influenced by the reactivity of the Anah basement faults started in the Late Campanian, and combined by shallowing upwards sequences. The conclusion is that, Digma facies can be considered as local facial changes of the Shiranish Formation, while Safra unit can be considered as a lower Member of (L. Maastrichtian-Danian) Jeed Formation, which is coincides with the whole stratigraphic frame work of the Mediterranean segments of the Tethyan phosphatic realm.