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Article citations


Cheesbrough, M. (2006) District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. Tropical Health Technology, Cambridge.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Antimicrobial Resistance Encountered in Garbage Collection Areas and Dumpsites in Nairobi, Kenya Using Escherichia coli and Klebsiella as Indicator Species

    AUTHORS: Grace Waturu, Winnie Mutai, John Kiiru, Moses Musyoki, Leonard Ochieng

    KEYWORDS: Dumpsite, Garbage Collection Area, Indicator Organisms, Antimicrobial Resistance

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Microbiology, Vol.7 No.9, September 6, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Dumpsites and garbage collection areas can act as reservoirs of highly resistant bacterial strains and facilitate the dissemination of Multidrug resistant strains to those living and work on or near the dumpsites and garbage collection areas. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of garbage collection areas and dumpsites in different parts of Nairobi as possible sources of resistant strains using E. coli and Klebsiella as indicator species. The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Sample collection was carried out at different days in seventeen different areas. A total of 126 samples were collected during the sampling period. The samples were then transported to the laboratory for analysis. The samples were cultured on MacConkey agar. Gram staining was done on discrete isolates based on colony characteristics. Biochemical tests were performed on colonies from primary cultures for final identification of the isolates. Antimicrobial disc susceptibility tests and pathogenicity tests were also carried out on the indicator isolates. A total of 121 E. coli and 165 Klebsiella were isolated from all the sampled sites. The highest bacterial burden was recorded from Muthurwa estate dumpsite, with a mean viable count of 8.2 × 1010 cfu/gm while the least was from Dandora dumpsite with a mean count of 1.1 × 1011 cfu/gm. Overall, gentamicin was the most effective antibacterial agent on Klebsiella and meropenem was the most effective on both E. coli and Klebsiella strains. The isolates showed high resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It is concluded that municipal waste dumpsites and garbage collection areas bear heavy burdens of potentially resistant bacteria which may constitute major public health hazards, not only to the immediate communities but also to the families of such site workers.