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Caporaso, J.G., Kuczynski, J., Stombaugh, J., Bittinger, K., Bushman, F.D., Costello, E.K., et al. (2010) QIIME Allows Analysis of High-Throughput Community Sequencing Data. Nature Methods, 7, 335-336. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Diet-Induced Alteration of the Murine Intestinal Microbiome Following Antibiotic Ablation

    AUTHORS: Adam Irvin, Andrew Cockburn, Donald A. Primerano, Jim Denvir, Goran Boskovic, Aniello M. Infante, Gary D. Wu, Christopher F. Cuff

    KEYWORDS: Mouse, Intestinal Microbiome, Antibiotics, Diet, Lactococcus

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Microbiology, Vol.7 No.7, July 7, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Mouse models of antibiotic-induced ablation of the intestinal microbiome have been used to study the microbiome in health and disease. The fecal microbiomes of mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics while being fed different laboratory chows were analyzed by Gram stain, quantitative flow cytometry, bacterial cell culture, next generation sequencing of the V3 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, microscopy, and sequence analysis of the tuf gene. Noncultivatable gram-positive cocci and cultivatable yeast were the microorganisms most readily detected in feces of antibiotic-treated mice fed a defined diet that utilizes casein as a protein source, maltodextrin 10 and sucrose as sources of carbohydrates, and lard as the major source of fat. High-throughput sequencing of the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing identified the major bacterial phylotype as Lactococcus. The mouse chow was heavily laden with noncultivatable Lactococcus, which dominated the intestinal flora after consumption. The microbiome of antibiotic-treated mice fed a grain-based diet (mainly wheat, corn and alfalfa) consisted predominantly of a member of the Enterobacteriaceae identified as Escherichia coli, and yeast was not detected by culture or Gram stain. Appearance of intestinal yeast by culture and Gram stain was dependent on the specific chow, although yeast was not detected by culture or Gram stain in the chow. We conclude that bacteria found in food sources can influence qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fecal microbiome, at least in the context of antibiotic therapy, and potentially confound molecular studies that assess the effects of diet on the intestinal ecology. Not surprisingly, different food sources can influence the microbiome, particularly in the context of antibiotic-mediated ablation of the intestinal microbiome. Whether and how the food-derived dead bacteria alter intestinal physiology needs to be determined.