SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Sawada, A. (1997) The Nurse Shortage Problem in Japan. Nursing Ethics, 4, 245-252.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Recommended Design and Direction of Development for Humanoid Nursing Robots Perspective from Nursing Researchers

    AUTHORS: Tetsuya Tanioka, Kyoko Osaka, Rozzano Locsin, Yuko Yasuhara, Hirokazu Ito

    KEYWORDS: Autonomous Robots, Healthcare Robots (HRs), Humanoid Nurse Robots (HNRs), Nursing, Caring

    JOURNAL NAME: Intelligent Control and Automation, Vol.8 No.2, May 26, 2017

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to describe recommendations towards the design and direction of development for Humanoid Nursing Robots (HNRs) from the standpoint of researchers of nursing care practice. Efforts to introduce robot technologies in nursing practice and to use them in elderly and high-tech healthcare environments have begun in developed countries like Japan. Companies are developing various types of robots, although their types and functionalities continue to require a clear identification and definition. Regardless, robot developments for health care purposes are progressing well to meet universal technological demands. While human caring has been a human-to-human relationship, in a nonhuman-to-human relationship in the case of HNRs, it is essential to consider ethical concerns and human safety. If HNRs are to support patients directly, they must be required to have the same level of comprehensive judgment ability and responsiveness as that of human nurses. This includes abilities to genuinely observe, judge, rapidly respond, and conduct human caring practice emphasizing individuality. If HNRs support patients independently, abilities which are much like those of humans will be required of them in addition to the appropriate intelligence and skillfulness to do so. A low level robot nurse exerts work that should be called non-nursing or as a medical aid assistant no matter who thinks and what these technologies can do. Similarly, a higher level HNR with higher level artificial intelligence is expected to exceed the capabilities of human beings. As such, current discourse and debate also include the concern that HNRs may now become one’s superior or rather that the HNR is a subordinate thereby requiring human management.