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Robertson, D.R., Wood, N.D., Everest, H., Monks, K., Waller, D.G., Renwick, A.G. and George, C.F. (1989) The Effect of Age on the Pharmacokinetics of Levodopa Administered Alone and in the Presence of Carbidopa. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 28, 61-69.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.1989.tb03506.x

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease

    AUTHORS: Maria Nord, Peter Zsigmond, Anita Kullman, Nil Dizdar

    KEYWORDS: Parkinson’s Disease, Levodopa, Dopamine, Brain, Microdialysis, Deep Brain Stimulation

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Parkinson's Disease, Vol.6 No.2, May 8, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Objective: One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented. Methods: Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism. Results: The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.