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Article citations


USDA-APHIS (2010) Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual. U.S. Department of Agri-culture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Detection of Mediterranean Fruit Fly Larvae Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Types of Fruit by HS-SPME GC-MS Method

    AUTHORS: Hasan Al-Khshemawee, Manjree Agarwal, Xin Du, Yonglin Ren

    KEYWORDS: Ceratitis capitata, Infested Fruits, SPME-GC-MS, Volatile Compounds, Apple, Orange, Mandarin, Lemon, Avocado

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Vol.5 No.3, April 3, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Timely detection of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is very important so that eradication action can be taken on time. The larvae stage of this insect is the most dangerous stage as it is within the pulp of the fruit, making it hard to detect by visual inspection. In most countries at ports of entry the inspector check a small sample of fruit by visual inspection or by cutting the produce and searching for fungus and pests. This paper will investigate a quick, reliable and sensitive method to determine the presence of fruit flies. Our research focuses on developing the technology for detecting hidden infestations by using the Head Space-Soild Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrocopy (GC-MS) technique. Five different types of fruit were infested with an early stage of Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephidae). We investigated to detect the differences in volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) between infested and non- infested fruits by using HS-SPME with (GC-MS). The results indicated that for few chemicals no significant differences between infested and non-infested fruit can be seen, especially in the fruits with first instar. However, in case of third instar larvae infested fruits significant differences in the chemicals can be seen as compare to non infested fruits and other instar infestations. These chemicals include ethyl (Z)-2 butenoate, 2-heptanone, anisole, β-cis-ocimene, 1,3,7-nonatriene,4,8-dimethy-,ethyl octyate, isoamyl caproate and 1β,4βh,10βh- guaia-5,11-diene, in apple. Ethyl (Z)-2-butenoate, (+)-2-bornanone, (-)-trans- isopiperitenol, methyl caprate, caryophyllene and farnesene in orange. Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-,2-methylbutul acetate, sabinene, β-myrcene, octanoic acid, methyl ester, dihydrocarvone, (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and ethyl laurate in mandarin. Butyl 2-methylbutanoate, terpinen-4-ol, P-menth-8-en-2-one, E-,(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene and dodecanoic acid, ethyl ester in lemon. Decane, 3-methyl-, p-menth-1,4(8)-diene, 1-undecene and α-cubebene in avocado. Thus, the VOC’s method could provide a possible tool for detecting tephritid larvae and this method could be adopted by industries importing and exporting fruit.