SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Hendry, A.P., Huber, S.K., De Leon, L.F., Herrel, A. and Podos, J. (2009) Disruptive Selection in a Bimodal Population of Darwin’s Finches. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 276, 753-759.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: An Individual-Based Modeling Approach to Investigate Sympatric Speciation via Specialized Resource Usage

    AUTHORS: Maryam Karim Pour, Sara Bandehbahman, Robin Gras, Melania E. Cristescu

    KEYWORDS: Individual-Based Models, Disruptive Selection, Divergent Feeding Behavior, Modeling Sympatric Speciation

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Ecology, Vol.7 No.3, March 31, 2017

    ABSTRACT: An individual-based model, EcoSim, was employed to investigate if specialized resource use could promote sympatric speciation. Prey individuals in the original version of EcoSim were supplied with a single primary food resource. A dual resource version with different food resources (Food 1 and Food 2) was also developed to create favorable conditions for the emergence of specialized food consumption among prey individuals. The single resource version was used as the control to determine the impact of the presence of multiple food resources on the occurrence of sympatric speciation. Each unit of Food 2 contained a higher amount of energy than Food 1, and Food 1 was more accessible than Food 2. Initially, prey individuals mostly fed on Food 1. How-ever, after the emergence of food specialization, the consumption rate of Food 2 signifi-cantly exceeded the consumption rate of Food 1; although prey individuals more frequently encountered Food 1. While sympatric speciation was observed in the dual resource version runs, we could not identify any sympatric species in the single resource version runs. Machine learning techniques were also employed to identify the most influential initial conditions leading to sympatric speciation. According to the obtained results, in most lineages sympatric speciation occurred at the beginning of the food specialization pro-cess. When the lineage had a high special diversity, the lineage needed two different criteria to diverge sympatrically: possessing high genetic diversity and a large population size. In support of previous findings, this study demonstrated that the most accurate determination of initial conditions leading to sympatric speciation can be obtained from lineages that are at the beginning of the divergence process. In conclusion, this study indicated that divergent foraging behavior could potentially lead to the sympatric emergence of new species in the absence of geographic isolation.