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Zhao, W., Steven, H.F. and Mongeau, L.G. (2000) Effects of Trailing Jet Instability on Vortex Ring Formation. Physics of Fluids, 12, 589.
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.870264

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Ring Vortex: Concepts for a Novel Complex Flow Phantom for Medical Imaging

    AUTHORS: Simone Ferrari, Simone Ambrogio, Adrian Walker, Prashant Verma, Andrew J. Narracott, Iain Wilkinson, John W. Fenner

    KEYWORDS: Imaging, Phantom, Flow, Vortex

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Medical Imaging, Vol.7 No.1, March 3, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Calibration of medical imaging systems that provide quantitative measures relating to complex physiological flows is challenging. Physical test objects available for the purpose either offer a known simple flow far removed from the complexity of pathology (e.g. parabolic flow in a straight pipe) or complex relevant flows in which the details of the flow behaviour are unknown. This paper presents the ring vortex as a candidate for a complex flow phantom, since it is marked by inherently complex flow features that are controllable, predictable, reproducible and stable. These characteristics are demonstrated by a combination of analytical, numerical (CFD) and experimental methods. Together they provide a consistent perspective on ring vortex behaviour and highlight qualities relevant to phantom design. Discussion of the results indicates that a liquid phantom based on the ring vortex may have merit as a complex flow phantom for multimodal imaging. Furthermore, availability of such a flow reference may also serve as a benchmark for quality assurance of simulation methodologies.