Facon, B., Genton, B.J., Shykoff, J., Jarne, P., Estoup, A. and David, P. (2006) A General Eco-Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Bioinvasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 130-135.
ABSTRACT: The admixture and recombination of individuals from the native range into a new range may lead to the production of invasive genotypes that have higher fitness and wider climatic tolerances than the native genotypes. In this paper, we compare the survival and growth of native EU and invasive NA genotypes when planted back into the native EU range near where the EU genotypes were collected. We test this hypothesis using the invasive wetland grass Phalaris arundinacea. If invasive genotypes have evolved to have higher survival and growth, then they should outperform the native EU genotypes under field conditions that are better suited to the EU genotypes. Individual plants of the wetland grass, Phalaris arundinacea collected from native Europe (Czech Republic (CZ) and France (FR)) and North America (Vermont (VT) and North Carolina (NC)) were planted into common gardens in Trebon, Czech Republic (49.0042°N, 14.7721°E) and Moussac, France (43.9808°N, 4.2241°E). Invasive genotypes from North Carolina (NC) survived as well or better than native genotypes in both the Trebon and Moussac garden. Additionally, invasive NC genotypes suffered higher herbivore damage than native genotypes but their growth and survival were not significantly different than genotypes from the other re-gions. A companion field experiment that simulated biomass removal through grazing indicated that invasive NC genotypes recovered faster following grazing than genotypes from other regions. Our results suggest that not all invasive genotypes are superior and regional differences in aggressiveness between invasive genotypes are as great as differences between individuals from native and invasive populations. Introduction of genotypes leading to invasion depends upon the environmental conditions and the suitability of the climate for the introduced individuals.