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Article citations


NIS (Nigerian Industrial Standards) (2007) Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. NIS554, 2007, ICS 13.060.20, Approved by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) Governing Council, 14-18.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Assessment of Seasonal Variation in Water Quality in River Rwizi Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Mbarara Municipality, Uganda

    AUTHORS: Walter Ojok, John Wasswa, Emmanuel Ntambi

    KEYWORDS: Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis, River Rwizi, Physico-Chemical, Water Pollution

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol.9 No.1, January 25, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality characteristics is an essential aspect for evaluating water pollution due to both natural and anthropogenic influences on water resources. In this study, temporal variations of water quality in river Rwizi section within Mbarara municipality, Uganda, were assessed using multivariate statistical methods. This river section is a major source of water for the inhabitants of Mbarara municipality. Water samples from five sites were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, turbidity, temperature, TSS, TDS, alkalinity, salinity, colour, NH3-N, , total hardness, BOD, COD, DO, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. About 50% of sites recorded colour above 800 Pt Co, 60% of sites recorded turbidity above maximum permissible limit of 100 mg/l, attributable to erosion and mineral matter. pH for dry season ranged between 6.5 and 8.5 whereas for rainy season was below 6.0. All study sites recorded total Fe above 0.3 mg/l and Mn below 0.5 mg/l, attributable to chemical weathering of host rock materials as well as from industrial effluent. About 60% of sites recorded COD above 100 mg/l, 40% and 80% of study sites showed BOD above 50 mg/l in dry and rainy seasons respectively. Hardness ranged between 50 and 100 mg/l indicating that the water is moderately soft. Colour, turbidity, alkalinity, TSS, TDS, salinity, pH, hardness, Fe, Mn, NH3-N, BOD, COD, and DO were higher in rainy season, as a result of erosion, discharge of domestic and industrial waste. Mg, Ca, and were higher during dry season due to high evaporation of water from the river. PCA/FA determined that 81.2% of the total variance was explained by the first factor for the dry season and 69.2% for rain season. These results revealed that water pollution resulted primarily from domestic waste water, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents.