World Health Organization (1968) Nutritional Anaemias. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Technical Report Series No. 405, Geneva.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the role of chronic anemia on neuropsychiatric symptoms and conditions among the elderly. Anemia is defined as hemoglobin levels below 120 and 130 g/L for women and men, respectively. Anemia is not a consequence of the aging process. It is common in the elderly and easily overlooked. Nevertheless, chronic anemia is a risk factor associated with increased mortality, several geriatric syndromes including functional and cognitive impairments. Investigations have shown that anemic elderly and those with hemoglobin borderline levels may present higher proportion of neuropsychiatric impairment, such as Executive Function Disorder and Alzheimer disease. The association between anemia and depression is well established, but its causal pathway is not known: anemia can be regarded as cause or consequence of depression. There is evidence that dementia due to anemia can be prevented; renal chronic anemic patients who received erythropoietin (EPO) replacement therapy showed a lower risk for dementia, compared to those who did not receive it. Anemia may be associated with chronic psychiatric diseases such as bipolar disorders and cause their symptoms to become more severe.