SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

Article citations


Nederman, T., Norling, B., Glimelius, B., Carlsson, J. and Brunk, U. (1984) Demonstration of an Extracellular Matrix in Multicellular Tumor Spheroids. Cancer Research, 44, 3090-3097.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: BIGH3: A Negative Regulator of Human Osteosarcoma Large Multicellular Spheroids

    AUTHORS: Brian S. Thoma, Robert J. Moritz, Fatemeh Rezapoor, Chandler T. Sargent, Clyde F. Phelix, Richard G. LeBaron

    KEYWORDS: Cancer, 3-Dimensional, TGFβ1, Extracellular Matrix, TGFBI, Beta-ig

    JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol.7 No.11, November 29, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between the extracellular matrix protein BIGH3 and variations in the malignant properties of different cancer cell types, including osteosarcoma cells. BIGH3 protein can suppress and promote tumor growth, even on the same cancer cell type, indicating that contextual cues regulate BIGH3-mediated divergent outcomes. We employed a multicellular tumor spheroid model to study the effects of BIGH3 with respect to physical and molecular features of three-dimensional tumor growth. The results demonstrated that exogenous recombinant BIGH3 blocked the development of multicellular large tumor spheroids so that only small spheroids formed. The effect was dependent on the BIGH3 concentration in the growth medium and the time of incubation of BIGH3 with the osteosarcoma cells in the spheroid model. TGF-β1 signaling induced multicellular tumor spheroids to synthesize a greater quantity of BIGH3 relative to non-treated spheroids. The TGF-β1-mediated increase in BIGH3 protein antagonized the development of multicellular large spheroids. Anti-BIGH3 antibody, and an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling, blocked the antagonistic effect induced through TGF-β1 stimulation and BIGH3 protein expression, resulting in the formation of multicellular large spheroids. Immunohistochemistry detected BIGH3 at cell bodies within the spheroid stroma, suggesting osteosarcoma cell-surface proteins bind BIGH3. Flow cytometry demonstrates that osteosarcoma cells interact with soluble BIGH3, and solid-phase cell adhesion assays show that osteosarcoma adhesion to BIGH3 substratum is mediated by integrin α4β1. However, anti-α4 antibody did not attenuate the BIGH3-mediated antagonism toward formation of multicellular large spheroids. We conclude that TGFβ1 and BIGH3 suppress the development of large osteosarcoma tumors.