SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

Article citations


Henriques, F.C. and Moritz, A.R. (1947) Studies of Thermal Injury: I. The Conduction of Heat to and Through Skin and the Temperatures Attained Therein. A Theoretical and an Experimental Investigation. American Journal of Pathology, 23, 530-549.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Modulated-Power Implantable Neuromodulation Devices and Their Impact on Surrounding Tissue Temperatures

    AUTHORS: John R. Stark, Sergio R. Romero, John M. Gorman, John P. Abraham, Ephraim M. Sparrow

    KEYWORDS: Biological Heating, Neurostimulation, Neuromodulation, Implant Recharge, Thermal Injury, Modulated-Power Implant

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Vol.9 No.12, November 17, 2016

    ABSTRACT: This project was intended to determine whether the preprogrammed time-varying recharge protocol for a battery incased in a neuromodulation implant can give rise to tissue temperatures that surpass a safe level or are otherwise benign. The study included the development of a highly accurate model of all the thermal processes that are activated by the recharging of the battery contained within the neuromodulation implant. The model was implemented by numerical simulations performed for several realistic operating conditions. The computed spatial and temporal tissue temperature distributions were employed to estimate possible tissue damage by making use of two independent methodologies. Independent calorimeter-based experiments were performed to provide validation for the calculated rates of heat generation in the coils of the implant. Spatial and temporal tissue temperature distributions extracted from the numerical simulations revealed the thermal effects associated with several realistic operating protocols. None of the operating protocols gave rise to temperatures above 42℃. Numerical values of thermal tissue damage metrics were determined and compared with accepted values which correspond to the absence and the presence of tissue damage. The experimentally determined rate of heat generation in the implant coils validated that from electrical measurements to within 2%. Both the tissue temperature results and the thermal damage metrics found no evidence of tissue injury when time-varying preprogrammed protocols are used in the recharging of neuromodulation implant-encased batteries.