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Article citations


APHA (1999) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Standard Methods, 541.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Environmental Study on a Coastal River of Bangladesh with Reference to Irrigation Water Quality Assessment: A Case Study on Shailmari River, Khulna

    AUTHORS: Md. Muhyminul Islam, Abul Kalam Azad, Mosummath Hosna Ara, Masudur Rahman, Nazia Hassan, Sadhon Chandra Swarnokar, Israth Rabeya

    KEYWORDS: Coastal River, Irrigation, Suitability, Salinity, SAR, % Na, FAO, Piper, USSL, Shailmari, Khulna

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Vol.4 No.10, October 26, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Water quality is the critical environmental determinant that influences the agricultural production and therefore, the economy that solely depends on its agricultural productions. Batiaghata Upazilla is one of the major crop productive areas of Khulna region and the agricultural production here largely depends on the natural water of the Shailmari River system around it. The present study was conducted to assess the suitability of this coastal river water for irrigational use. 66 water samples were collected during this study in three consecutive agricultural seasons, viz., pre-monsoon (22), monsoon (22) and post-monsoon (22) from 11 sampling stations within the river system considering the high (11) and ebb (11) tides for each station. Standard methods were followed throughout the study period for the collection of the samples and analysis of major physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SO4, NO3 and PO4). Hydrocehmical characterization using Piper trilinear diagram shows that the water of the river system is Na-Cl dominated saline water type in pre-monsoon, whilst most of the samples of the river and the connected channel are characterized as fresh water of Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 types in monsoon and post-monsoon respectively. The calculated values of chemical indices like SAR, %Na, KI, PI and MH using the results of the analysed parameters indicate that the river water is chemically unsuitable for use in irrigation during pre-monsoon, while in the monsoon and post-monsoon the river water is within good to permissible limit for the use in the agricultural fields. However, high %Na, KI and MH values with high salinity of the channel water limit its use in agricultural applications in monsoon and post-monsoon. The USSL (United States Salinity Laboratory) diagram depicts that the river water is C4-S4 type with very high salinity and sodium content in pre-monsoon, while in other seasons the water is mostly C1-S1, C2-S1 or C2-S2 types (low to moderate salinity and sodium) in the river. Wilcox diagram shows that the river water is “suitable” for irrigation during monsoon and post-monsoon as the most of the samples range within “Excellent to Good” and “Good to permissible” categories, while it is “unsuitable” for crop irrigation during pre-monsoon when SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) and EC (Electrical Conductivity) values of the water reach to their peaks.