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Perlmutter, S. (2003) Physics Today, 53-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1580050

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Hubble Field vs Dark Energy

    AUTHORS: Juan Lartigue

    KEYWORDS: Hubble Law, Hubble Field, Cosmological Constant, Friedmann Equations

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.7 No.12, August 31, 2016

    ABSTRACT: The Hubble equation was considered valid enough to calculate the recession velocity of galaxies, until further observations showed that there would be an accelerated recession in the Hubble flow, necessarily tied to an accelerated expansion of the Universe. So, this paper postulates the existence of a Hubble field as a possible cause for such an accelerated expansion, with some conditions: it must be a scalar field whose intensity should be a constant in respect to distance and whose Poisson equation should not be zero nor a function of mass; such field could rather be a property of the space-time. The obvious expression for acceleration should be the derivative of the Hubble equation respect to time, which gives two opposed-signs terms whose substitution by the De-Sitter equation drives to a permanent negative acceleration, similarly to that obtained by the 2nd Friedmann equation. Otherwise, the inclusion of the ? term in the gravitational Einstein equation has led to a two opposed-signs terms expression, resembled to a non-published Newton equation. The negative term expresses the gravitational attraction and the positive one expresses the accelerated expansion as a ? function, which usually is attributed to dark energy. In this paper it is shown that Λ is proportional to the squared Hubble parameter and that the uncertain dark energy may be substituted by the calculable Hubble field intensity to obtain an equation for the net Universe acceleration. Equations for the Hubble parameter as functions of time and radius are also deduced. A relation is shown between the various assumed masses of the Universe and its critical radius. Additional Universe parameters are estimated such as the deceleration factor and a solution for the Poisson equation in the Hubble field. A brief comment t on high-standard candles is included.