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Kuo, S.P., Koretzky, E. and Orlick, L. (2001) Methods and Apparatus for Generating a Plasma Torch. US Patent No. 6329628 B1.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Air Plasma Spray for First Aid

    AUTHORS: Spencer Kuo

    KEYWORDS: Plasma Spray, First Aid, Coagulation, Wound Healing, Atomic Oxygen

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol.4 No.3, August 26, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage during trauma occurred in emergency situations is a significant challenge. It may be life threatening if it is not treated swiftly. A new device which can effectively stop bleeding to save life of injured person, especially in battlefield situations and accidents, is presented. A plasma generator is designed to generate a low temperature air plasma spray for treating wounds. The spectral spike at 777.4 nm in the emission spectrum of the plasma plume and the spatial distribution of this emission line’s spectral intensity indicate that abundant atomic oxygen is generated and sprays out of the generator by about 25 mm. Atomic oxygen carried by the plasma spray can quickly activate the cascading of coagulation processes and works as dry disinfectant to advance healing. Tests on blood droplets reveal the strong dependence of blood clotting on the amount of atomic oxygen applied in the plasma treatment, which is maneuvered by increasing the plasma treatment time or decreasing the exposure distance; in both approaches, the degree of blood clotting increases. Treated smeared blood samples show that an increase of the erythrocyte concentration and a drastic decrease of the platelet count are also correlated to the increase of atomic oxygen dose applied in the plasma treatment. The results reveal the mechanisms of air plasma blood coagulation and wound healing. As animal models, pigs were used in the tests of stopping wound bleeding from a cross cut in the ham area, from a hole in an ear’s saphenous vein, and from cuts to arteries in an ear and in a real leg, all stopped swiftly. Moreover, both artery cuts were secure to remove tourniquet; downgrade of tourniquet necessary wound in under 2 minutes was demonstrated. The healing progress of cross cut wounds was observed. The healing time was shortened to about half. This battery power plasma spray can be carried to or placed at anywhere available for first aid applications. It stops bleeding swiftly to save life, and also downgrades tourniquet necessary wound to extend the golden period of saving the remaining part below tourniquet.