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International Energy Agency (IEA) (2015) Coal Information 2015. IEA.
http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/coal-information-2015_coal-2015-en

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Key Factor of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in the History of the Contribution of Mining Industry to the Prosperity of the United States and South Africa: A Review

    AUTHORS: Shinji Matsumoto, Hideki Shimada, Takashi Sasaoka

    KEYWORDS: Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), Mining Industry, South Africa, The United States, Historical Analysis, Socio-Economic Conditions

    JOURNAL NAME: Natural Resources, Vol.7 No.7, July 25, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Mining industry has significantly contributed to the prosperity of the nation with economic growth, whereas mining operation has caused Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) with the abandonment of mines. As some researchers suggest, the history of AMD is, generally, affected by the change in not only mining industry but also in social and economic conditions. Thus, historical analysis is an effective way to find the key factors of AMD. In this study, in order to find the key factors of AMD, we examine the history of the United States (U.S.) and South Africa, where their economy had been developed owing to the large-scale mining, based on the findings in the previous studies. The results indicated that the abandoned mines due to the economic depression triggered AMD in the U.S. and South Africa. While the U.S. had progressively adopted anti-AMD methods in terms of prevention, prediction, and remediation (PPR) as a comprehensive approach, especially since the 1970s onwards because of the rise of environmental consciousness as well as strict regulations, South Africa is at the early stage of implementing the regulations following PPR. The public attention should be directed to environmental conservation in addition to the implementation of the regulations in South Africa. The improvement in socio-economic conditions is, additionally, necessary for the rise of environmental consciousness in South Africa in the light of the three pillars of sustainable development: social, economic, and environmental elements.