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Article citations


Pukala, T.L., Doyle, J.R., Llewellyn, L.E., Kuhn-Nentwig, L., Apponyi, M.A., Separovic, F. and Bowie, J.H. (2007) Cupiennin 1a, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Venom of the Neotropical Wandering Spider Cupiennius salei, Also Inhibits the Formation of Nitric Oxide by Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. The FEBS Journal, 274, 1778-1784.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Antimicrobial Activity of Purified Toxins from Crossopriza lyoni (Spider) against Certain Bacteria and Fungi

    AUTHORS: Ravi Kumar Gupta, Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    KEYWORDS: Spider Toxins, Voltage Gates, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Susceptibility, Antimicrobials, Bio-Insecticides

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Vol.4 No.8, July 25, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Toxins from spider venom Crossopriza lyoni were subjected to purify on a Sepharose CL-6B 200 column. These were investigated for its antibacterial and antifungal activity against 13 infectious microbial pathogenic strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by using paper disc diffusion and serial micro-dilution assays. Triton X-100 (0.1%) proved to be a good solubilizing agent for toxin/proteins. Higher protein solubilization was observed in the supernatant than in the residue, except TCA. The elution pattern of purified and homogenized sting glands displayed two major peaks at 280 nm. First one was eluted in fraction no. 43 - 51 while second one after fraction no. 61 - 90. From gel filtration chromatography total yield of protein obtained was 67.3%. From comparison of gel chromatographs eluted toxins peptide molecular weight was ranging from 6.2 - 64 kD. Toxin peptides have shown lower MIC values i.e. 7.5 - 15 μg/ml against K. pneumoniae, E. coli, L. acidophilus, B. cereus; against S. aureus and M. luteus that the broad spectrum antibiotics i.e. tetracycline and ampicillin. In tests, larger inhibition zone diameter was obtained in comparison to control. Diameter of inhibition zones obtained in spider toxins at a concentration range of 197.12 - 0.96 g/ml for E. coli was 17.86 ± 0.21, Bacillus cereus 19.13 ± 0.21, L. acidophilus 16.83 ± 0.25, Micrococcus luteus 18.46 ± 0.17, S. aeurus 16.23 ± 0.19, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21.83 ± 0.16, Salmonella typhi 16.16 ± 0.21, Vibrio cholera 18.66 ± 0.21, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18.66 ± 0.21, Aspergillus niger 22.9 ± 0.24, Candida albicans 24.66 ± 0.28, Rhizopus stolonifer 21.1 ± 0.16. Spider toxins generate cytotoxic effect on bacterial cells that results in heavy cell death. No doubt spider toxins can be used as alternate of broad spectrum antibiotics.