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Article citations


Sebastian, A. (2001) A Dictionary of the History of Medicine. New York-London, 228.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: A Voyage to Beyond the Human Eye by Microscope, Leeuwenheok's Invention

    AUTHORS: Nasser Pouyan

    KEYWORDS: Microscope, Leeuwenhoek

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Access Library Journal, Vol.3 No.1, January 15, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Microscope, an instrument used for obtaining magnified image of small objects. The term of microscope was coined by Johannes Faber of Bamberg. The identity of its inventor has not been clearly established. Aristotle about 24 centuries before Leeuwenhoek described the working of microscope in some detail. The earliest records of optical lenses date from the late 13th century, when spectacles came into use. Roger Bacon, in his “Opus Magnus” of 1268 spoke of the use of lenses for magnifying objects. About 4 centuries later Leeuwenhoek built over 200 simple microscopes and became the father of protozoology and bacteriology. Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, Holland. He is commonly known as the father of microbiology and considered the first microbiologist. He was raised in Delft, worked as a linen draper in his youth and founded his own shop (1654) and made a name for himself in municipal politics, and eventually developed an interest in lens making. Leeuwenhoek with his simple microscope for which he ground the lenses, achieved magnification of 270 times. Anton van Leeuwenhoek, during the last quarter of the seventeenth century with exquisitely polished homemade lenses, studied a great variety of natural materials such as pond water, vinegar, and blood. He observed protozoa (microscopic animals) in mixture of pepper and water, and bacteria in scrapings of human teeth. He described discovery of “animalcules”, as he called them, raised protozoa, bacteria, blood corpuscles, spermatozoa and the striated fibers found in bundles in voluntary muscles, and many other microscopic creatures and structures. He also had many findings in dentistry. Leeuwenhoek earned for himself a place of honor as a Fellow of the Royal Society in London. During his lifetime he sent 375 scientific papers to the Royal Society and 27 papers to the French Académie des Sciences. After the creation of the microscope it evolved slowly, hampered both by the lack of theoretical understanding and mechanical technology needed for making precision instruments. About 1800 the compound microscopes of the better makers began to resemble their modern counterparts. In 20th century the fundamental principles which were discovered led immediately to the development of oil-immersion objective and remain as the basis of microscope design.