SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Bihagen, E. and Ohls, M. (2006) The Glass Ceiling—Where Is It? Women’s and Men’s Career Prospects in the Private vs. the Public Sector in Sweden 1979-2000. The Sociological Review, 54, 20-47.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: An Empirical Analysis of Women’s Promotion in Japanese Companies: Comparison with Chinese and Korean Cases

    AUTHORS: Hiromi Ishizuka

    KEYWORDS: Promotion, Labor Market, Gender Diversity in Management, Work-Life Balance, Glass Ceiling, Sticky Floor, Negative Binominal Regression Model

    JOURNAL NAME: Theoretical Economics Letters, Vol.6 No.3, June 22, 2016

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the economic revitalization of Japan by learning from other countries through a consideration of diversity. From Chinese urban areas, we study an example of a fluid labor market, and a firmly rooted movement of women into the workplace. From Korea, even though the male-female disparities are greater than those in Japan, we study a concrete case in terms of the rapid speed of the changing workplace. The framework includes not only promotion at the company level, but also lifestyle at the household level. The study uses the numerical values and analysis is through the Negative Binominal Regression Model. Findings include: 1) in Japan, there is “slow promotion” in the both case of men and women and a “glass ceiling” for women; 2) in China, the decisive male-female disparity is the difference in the “age of fixed retirement”. Gender gaps in working conditions are uncommon. Home factors slightly disturb promotions. Tenure is short and there is a fluid labor market. There is a “sticky floor” for women; 3) in Korea, the gender gap of graduate’s with more than a bachelor’s degree is small. Men with no official title are concentrated in the low rank, and have long tenures. There is a “sticky floor” for men. There are two years of compulsory military service for young men. Despite this, many men are promoted to higher managerial positions in their lifetimes.