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Article citations


Yukawa, K., Tachikawa, N. and Kasugai, S. (2014) A Survey of Attitude about Smoking, Associated with Periodontal Disease and New Patients Hoping Dental Implants Dental Implants Intended for New Patients Hoping Dental Implants. Japan Society for Tobacco Control, 9, 41-49.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Dental Implant Patients Grouped by the Brinkman Index: Their Attitude toward Smoking, Nicotine Dependence, and Knowledge of Peri-Implantitis

    AUTHORS: Ken Yukawa, Noriko Tachikawa, Shohei Kasugai

    KEYWORDS: Dental Implant, Peri-Implantitis, Smoking, Smoking Cessation, Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND)

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Vol.5 No.2, June 7, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study investigated the attitude of patients, grouped by the Brinkman index, towards smoking by using the Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND) and their knowledge of peri-implantitis. Methods: The participants were 3093 new patients who visited the Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 for an oral implant. The methodology included a questionnaire about sex, age, smoking status, daily average number of cigarettes, years of smoking, knowledge of peri-implantitis, and the KTSND. The patients were grouped according to their smoking status by calculating their Brinkman index (over 200 or not): current smokers with the possibility of nicotine dependence (BI(+)CS), current smokers with no possibility of nicotine dependence (BI(-)CS), ex-smokers (ES), and non-smokers (NS). The Brinkman index is obtained by multiplying one’s daily average number of cigarettes by the number of years they have been smoking. Results: Data were collected from 2182 respondents (response rate = 71%). The KTSND scores of BI(+)CS (16.89 ± 4.26) were significantly higher than the scores of ES (11.99 ± 4.52) and NS (11.53 ± 5.01). In current smokers, there were no significant differences between BI(+)CS and BI(-)CS. The patients replied “I don’t know” about peri-implantitis most often in all groups; however, there were no significant differences between the groups. Discussion: BI(+)CS were more dependent on nicotine in social situations than the other groups were. In Japan, a Brinkman index over 200 is required for a nicotine-dependence management fee to be instituted for health insurance treatment. This is a major concern for young smokers, who may be excluded from treatment because their years of smoking are substantially less. Results revealed that there were no significant differences between BI(+)CS and BI(-)CS. Therefore, it was suggested that the Brinkman index did not sufficiently group the participants.