Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.

 

Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
   
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat
(or Email:book@scirp.org)

Article citations

More>>

Ipp, M.M., Gold, R., Goldbach, M., et al. (1989) Adverse Reactions to Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis-Polio Vaccination at 18 Months of Age: Effect of Injection Site and Needle Length. Pediatrics, 83, 679-682.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Appropriate Needle Lengths Determined Using Ultrasonic Echograms for Intramuscular Injections in Japanese Infants

    AUTHORS: Tetsuo Nakayama, Urara Kohdera, Motoko Fujino, Toshihiro Tanaka, Keitaro Yatabe, Tomoyuki Hashiguchi, Tomohide Sato, Minoru Kino

    KEYWORDS: Intramuscular Injection, Subcutaneous Injection, Vaccines, Needle Length

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Pediatrics, Vol.6 No.2, June 6, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Adjuvanted vaccines are recommended for administration through an intramuscular route. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended the anterolateral thigh using a 22 - 25-G 25-mm (1 inch) needle for infants, injected at a 90°into the skin surface, and using a 16 mm (5/8 inch) for newborns. Appropriate needle lengths may differ depending on racial backgrounds. In the present study, the thickness of the epidermis and lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were measured using ultrasonic echograms in order to determine suitable needle lengths for Japanese infants aged 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 - 15 months old. The thickness of the epidermis was 1.44 - 1.54 mm (95% CI), and the lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 11.52 - 12.28 mm (95% CI), and 25.66 - 26.93 mm (95% CI), respectively, at the anterolateral thigh. At the center of the deltoid muscle, skin thickness was similar to that at the thigh, furthermore the lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 8.49 - 9.10 mm (95% CI), and 17.38 - 18.31 mm (95% CI), respectively. The lengths from the skin surface to the muscle fascia and bone were 1 - 2 mm shorter in 2-month-old infants than those in older generations. Therefore, the appropriate needle length for intramuscular injections in Japanese infants was 16 mm (5/8 inch) at any age and sites, and with 25 mm (1 inch) needles at a 90°angle being associated with the risk of over-penetration.