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Crawford, R.H. (2009) Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Emissions Analysis of Wind Turbines and the Effect of Size on Energy Yield. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 2653-2660.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.008

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Impact of Different Parameters on Life Cycle Analysis, Embodied Energy and Environmental Emissions for Wind Turbine System

    AUTHORS: Nazia Binte Munir, Ziaul Huque, Raghava R. Kommalapati

    KEYWORDS: Embodied Energy, Energy Payback Time, Emissions, Life Cycle Analysis, Wind Energy

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.7 No.7, June 6, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for climate change as a result of greenhouse gas effect, every country is looking for ways to develop eco-friendly renewable energy sources. Wind energy has become a good option due to its comparative economic advantages and environment friendly aspects. But there is always an ongoing debate if wind energy is as green as it seems to appear. Wind turbines once installed do not produce any greenhouse gases during operation, but it can and may produce significant emissions during manufacture, transport, installation and disposal stages. To determine the exact amount of emissions, it is necessary to consider all the stages for a wind turbine from manufacture to disposal. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a technique that determines the energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts of a product or system throughout the life cycle stages. The various approaches that have been used in the literature for the LCA of wind turbines have many discrepancies among the results, the main reason(s) being different investigators used different parameters and boundary conditions, and thus comparisons are difficult. In this paper, the influence of different parameters such as turbine size, technology (geared or gearbox less), recycling, medium of transport, different locations, orientation of the blade (horizontal or vertical), blade material, positioning of wind turbine (land, coastal or offshore), etc. on greenhouse gas emissions and embodied energy is studied using the available data from exhaustive search of literature. This provides tools to find better solutions for power production in an environmental friendly manner by selecting a proper blade orientation technique, with suitable blade material, technology, recycling techniques and suitable location.