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Anania, W.C., Rosen, R.C. and Giuffre, A.M. (1987) Gunshot Wounds to the Lower Extremity: Principles and Treatment. The Journal of Foot Surgery, 26, 228-232.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Internal Fixation of Gunshot Induced Fractures in Civilians: Anatomic and Functional Results of a Standard Protocol at an Urban Trauma Center

    AUTHORS: Anani Abalo, Atsi Walla, Gamal Ayouba, Yaovi Yannick Dellanh, Kosivi Fortey, Assang Dossim

    KEYWORDS: Fracture, Gunshot Fracture, Internal Fixation, Wound Infection, Surgical Treatment

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Orthopedics, Vol.6 No.3, March 25, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Despite extensive experience with civilian gunshot fractures or wounds, no consensus exists on a standard protocol to manage these injuries. Many authors recommended immediate debridement, but the optimal timing of internal fixation and the use of antibiotic have not been determined. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss our experience. Material and methods: In January 2007, a treatment protocol was put in place for the evaluation and management of fractured extremities resulting from civilian gunshot wounds. Sixty-three patients with 64 fractures had been managed by this protocol for gunshot fractures between January 2005 and January 2012. There were 56 male and seven female. Their mean age was 33.1 years (range: 17 - 61 years). Thirteen patients (20.6%) were able to provide a description of the weapon. Only 15 patients had entry and exit wounds. The mean follow-up period was 27 (range, 20 - 58) months. The main factors assessed were the surgical site infection, the fracture union and the functional status. Results: Out of the 63 patients, 14 patients developed a wound infection (five superficial and seven deep infections). Wound infection was significantly associated with associated injuries (p = 0.0388), fractures sites requiring fixation (p = 0.024), the fracture pattern (p = 0.0412), operative modalities (p = 0.0400). There were nine cases (14.1%) of fracture non-union. The mean time to union was 15 weeks (range: 5 - 32 weeks). Five patients developed chronics osteomyelitis. The average SMFA score for all of the patients was 23.8 (range: 0 - 56.3). The mean dysfunctional and bother indexes were 18.3 (range: 0 - 52.7) and 22.6 (range: 0 - 66.1), respectively. The SMFA total score and dysfunction index had a significant correlation based on presence or absence of associated injuries (p