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Y. Kasai, R. Iida, A. Uccida. “Metal concentrations in the serum and hair of patients with titanium alloy spinal im- plants”. Spine 2003; 28(12):1320-1326.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Morphological and Functional Alterations in Human Red Blood Cells Treated with Titanium Citrate

    AUTHORS: Gugliotta Tiziana, De Luca Grazia, Romano Pietro, Rigano Caterina, Romano Orazio, Scuteri Adriana, Romano Leonardo

    KEYWORDS: Anion Transport, Band 3 Protein, Erythrocytes, Erythrocyte Membrane, GSH, Titanium Citrate

    JOURNAL NAME: Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Vol.2 No.3, July 26, 2011

    ABSTRACT: The morphological and functional effects of titanium (Ti) citrate on human erythrocytes were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), sulphate uptake via band 3 protein and by determining the reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively) concentrations. The rate constant for sulphate uptake was significantly lower after Ti citrate treatment. Ti citrate (0.001 and 0.0025 mM) significantly decreased erythrocyte GSH and increased GSSG concentrations. At 0.005 mM Ti citrate, the intracellular GSH could not be tested due to significant cellular damage. SEM of erythrocytes treated with 0.001 mM and 0.0025 mM Ti citrate showed structural membrane defects but almost normal cellular diameters. At even higher Ti citrate concentrations (0.005 mM), erythrocytes showed obvious morphological alteration and shape changes compromising the cells physiological functions. In conclusion, although the Ti concentrations used in our experiments are physiologically high, the cumulative effect of prolonged exposure to much lower doses of Ti, as might occur during total hip replacement, should be considered for further experimental testing.