Maor, R., Haskin, S., Levi-Kedmi, H. and Sharon, A. (2004) In Planta Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. Aeschynomene. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 70, 1852-1854.
ABSTRACT: Auxinic-like compounds have been widely used as weed control agents. Over the years, the modes of action of auxinic herbicides have been elucidated, but most studies thus far have focused on their effects on later stages of plant growth. Here, we show that some select auxins and auxiniclike herbicides trigger a rapid elevation in root cytosolic calcium levels within seconds of application. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the Yellow-Cameleon (YC) 3.60 calcium reporter were treated with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and two synthetic herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and mecoprop [2-(4-chloro- 2-methylphenoxy) propanoic acid], followed by monitoring cytosolic calcium changes over a 10 minute time course. Seconds after application of compounds to roots, the Ca2+ signaling-mediated pathway was triggered, initiating the plant response to these compounds as monitored and recorded using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-sensitized emission imaging. Each compound elicited a specific and unique cytosolic calcium signature. Also primary root development and elongation was greatly reduced or altered when exposed at two concentrations (0.10 and 1.0 μM) of each compound. Within 20 to 25 min after triggering of the Ca2+ signal, root growth inhibition could be detected. We speculate that differences in calcium signature among the tested auxins and auxinic herbicides might correlate with their variation and potency with regard to root growth inhibition.