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Article citations


Varani, K., Portaluppi, F., Gessi, S., Merighi, S., Vincenzi, F., Cattabriga, E. and Borea, P.A. (2005) Caffeine Intake Induces an Alteration in Human Neutrophil A2A Adenosine Receptors. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS, 62, 2350-2358.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Is There a Relation between Adenosine and Caffeines’ Mechanisms of Action and Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4)?

    AUTHORS: Sarah Moodad, Nayla Al-Akl, Joseph Simaan, Alexander M. Abdelnoor

    KEYWORDS: TLR-4, Adenosine, Caffeine, LPS-RS, Cytokines

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Immunology, Vol.5 No.4, September 4, 2015

    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that endogenous adenosine, an anti-inflammatory agent, was released at sites of injury and inflammation thereby decreasing the excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine blocker, has been reported in several studies to have opposing immune-modulatory effects. In this study, the effects of caffeine and adenosine on TLR-4 in promoting or decreasing the production of TNF-α and IL-12 by LPS-stimulated monocytes were investigated. Monocytes were isolated using Pluribead® kit from pooled blood obtained from ten volunteers. The monocytes were then incubated for 24 hours with Lipopolysaccharide (pLPS) extracted from Escherichia coli (aTLR-4 ligand activator), adenosine, caffeine and LPS extracted from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS, a TLR-4 ligand blocker), each alone or in different combinations. Later, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-12 were assessed in supernatants using an Enzyme Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA). Caffeine and adenosine significantly reduced the amount of TNFα and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated monocytes. Regarding non-stimulated and LPS-RS blocked monocytes, the presence of adenosine and caffeine significantly decreased TNFα levels produced by these cells but had little or non-significant effect on the levels of IL-12. In conclusion, both caffeine and adenosine blocked the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by pLPS-stimulated-monocytes. TLR-4 did not appear to be involved in the signaling pathway of caffeine and adenosine since blocking of TLR-4 did not abolish the effects of adenosine and caffeine on production of cytokines, in particular TNF-α.