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Sarah, P.G., Margaret, J.C., Cheng, H., et al. (2000) The Short Form of the Alternatively Spliced Flt-4 but Not Its Ligand Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Is Related to Lymph Node Metastasis in Human Breast Cancers. Clinical Cancer Research, 6, 4278-4286.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Immunohistochemical Expression of VEGF in Relation to Other Pathological Parameters of Breast Carcinoma

    AUTHORS: Mais Almumen

    KEYWORDS: Breast Carcinoma, VEGF, ER, PR, IHC

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol.6 No.9, September 2, 2015

    ABSTRACT: Background: Several molecular markers have been detected that are important in clinical aspect of malignancies especially in breast cancer. More recently, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the most potent endothelial cell mitogen and also a regulator of vascular permeability, is emerging as a prognostic marker in patients with several types of cancer including breast cancer. This study assessed the expression of VEGF in a series of breast cancers in correlation with HER-2/neu and steroid receptors (ER and PR) in standard clinicopathological parameters in an attempt to clarify its potential clinical importance in Iraqi females of Middle Euphrates area. Findings: The present investigation was performed over a period starting from September 2011 through September 2012. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 52 patients with breast cancer (44 ductal and 8 lobular carcinoma) were included in this study. A group of 20 patients with fibroadenoma was included as a comparative group, and 20 samples of normal breast tissue sections were used as controls. Labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB+) complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF, HER-2/neu, ER and PR. The detection rate of VEGF, HER-2/neu, ER and PR was 59.62%, 36.96%, 34.62% and 36.54% respectively. There was a significant difference in immunoexpression between ductal and lobular carcinoma, but not significantly different among tumor sizes, tumor grades, axillary lymph node involvement and age of the patients. However, VEGF was positively correlated with tumor grade, tumor size, nodal involvement and HER-2/neu, but negatively correlated with ER and PR, which show the most unfavorable biopathological profile. Conclusion: VEGF overexpression play an important role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma evolution, as its positivity associated with biologically aggressive tumors, so incorporation of this biomarker with other parameters into a prognostic index will more accurately predict clinical outcome and determine the effects of anti cancer therapy.