Sammons, R.D. and Gaines, T.A. (2014) Glyphosate Resistance: State of Knowledge. Pest Management Science, 70, 1367-1377.
ABSTRACT: A giant ragweed population from a glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean field in Mississippi, USA was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify the magnitude of glyphosate resistance in a resistant biotype selected from this population and to elucidate possible physiological and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate resistance. Glyphosate dose response studies indicated that ED50 (effective dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for glyphosate-resistant (GR-MS) and glyphosate-susceptible (GS-MS) biotypes, based on percent injury, were 0.52 and 0.34 kg ae/ha glyphosate, respectively, indicating a 1.5-fold level of resistance in GR-MS. The absorption pattern of 14C-glyphosate in the two giant ragweed biotypes was similar throughout the measured time course of 168 h after treatment (HAT). The amount of 14C-glyphosate that translocated out of treated leaves of the GR-MS and GS-MS plants was similar up to 24 HAT. However, the GS-MS biotype translocated more (71% and 76% of absorbed at 48 and 96 HAT, respectively) 14C-glyphosate than the GR-MS biotype (44% and 66% of absorbed at 48 and 96 HAT, respectively) out of the treated leaf. No target site mutation was identified at the Pro106 location of the EPSPS gene of the GR-MS biotype. The mechanism of resistance to glyphosate in giant ragweed from Mississippi, at least, is due to reduced glyphosate translocation.