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Farr, J.B., Mascia, A.E., His, W.C., Allgower, C.E., Jesseph, F., Schreuder, A.N., Wolanski, M., Nichiporov, D.F. and Anferov, V. (2008) Clinical Characterization of a Proton Beam Continuous Uniform Scanning System with Dose Layer Stacking. Medical Physics, 35, 4945-4954.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Biological Dose Estimation Model for Proton Beam Therapy

    AUTHORS: Vladimir Anferov, Indra J. Das

    KEYWORDS: Proton Beam Therapy, Relative Biological Effectiveness, Linear Energy Transfer

    JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, Vol.4 No.2, April 23, 2015

    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The recommended value for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams is currently assumed to be 1.1. However, there is increasing evidence that RBE increases towards the end of proton beam range that may increase the biological effect of proton beam in the distal regions of the dose deposition. Methods: A computational approach is presented for estimating the biological effect of the proton beam. It includes a method for calculating the dose averaged linear energy transfer (LET) along the measured Bragg peak and published LET to RBE conversion routine. To validate the proposed method, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the pristine Bragg peak at various beam energies and compared the analysis with the simulated results. A good agreement within 5% is observed between the LET analysis of the modeled Bragg peaks and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: Applying the method to the set of Bragg peaks measured at a proton therapy facility we have estimated LET and RBE values along each Bragg peak. Combining the individual RBE-weighted Bragg peaks with known energy modulation weights we have calculated the RBE-weighted dose in the modulated proton beam. The proposed computational method provides a tool for calculating dose averaged LET along the measured Bragg peak. Conclusions: Combined with a model to convert LET into RBE, this method enables calculation of RBE-weighted dose both in pristine Bragg peak and in modulated beam in proton therapy.