SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.

 

Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
   
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat
(or Email:book@scirp.org)

Article citations

More>>

ICAO (2006) Aerodrome Design Manual (ADM), Part I Runways. Doc 9157, 3rd Edition, Montreal.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: A Methodology to Assess the Safety of Aircraft Operations When Aerodrome Obstacle Standards Cannot Be Met

    AUTHORS: Hartmut Fricke, Christoph Thiel

    KEYWORDS: Aeronautical Study, Aircraft Performance, Obstacle Clearance, Collision Risk, Engine out Operations

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol.5 No.2, February 27, 2015

    ABSTRACT: When Aerodrome Obstacle Standards cannot be met as a result of urban or technical development, an aeronautical study can be carried out with the permission of EASA, in conjunction with ICAO, to prove how aircrafts can achieve an equivalent level of safety. However currently, no detailed guidance for this procedure exists. This paper proposes such a safety assessment methodology in order to value obstacle clearance violations around airports. This method has already been applied to a safety case at Frankfurt Airport where a tower elevating 4 km out of threshold 25R severely violates obstacle limitation surfaces. The model data refers to a take-off and landing performance model (TLPM) computing precisely aircraft trajectories for both standard and engine out conditions at ground proximity. The generated tracks are used to estimate collision risk incrementally considering EASA/FAA, EU-OPS & ICAO clearance criteria. Normal operations are assessed with a probabilistic analysis of empirical take-off/landing track data generating the local actual navigation performance (ANP) on site. The ANP shows integration to collision risk for an aircraft with any obstacle. The obstacle is tested for clearance within a “5-step-plan” against all performance requirements for landing climb and take-off climb. The methodology thereby delivers a comprehensive risk picture: The presented safety case for Frankfurt Airport showed an equivalent safety level despite the violation of standards. The collision risk during both normal and degraded performance operations was still found to be within ICAO Collision Risk Model (CRM) limits, requiring only limited risk mitigation measures. The presented work should complement ICAO Doc 9774 Appendix 3.