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Flood, R. and Krauss, B. (2003) Procedural sedation and analgesia for children in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 21, 121- 139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0733-8627(02)00084-6

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Use of oral ketamine for analgesia during reduction/manipulation of fracture/dislocation in the Emergency Room: An initial experience in a low-resource setting

    AUTHORS: E. Ogboli-Nwasor, K. E. Amaefule, S. S. Audu

    KEYWORDS: Oral Ketamine; Analgesia; Fracture/Dislocation; Emergency Room

    JOURNAL NAME: Pain Studies and Treatment, Vol.2 No.1, January 15, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of ketamine for relief of procedure-related pain is limited in our environment. Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative commonly used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, is administered routinely via the intravenous and intramuscular routes. One of the concerns while using ketamine for analgesia via these two routes is that the drug may produce anaesthesia, rather than analgesia alone. Aims and Objectives: We sought to find out if ketamine given via the oral route could be used to provide analgesia during minor orthopaedic procedures in the emergency room. We also wanted to find out if there were side-effects peculiar to the oral route. Methods: A prospective observational pilot study in consecutive patientswith fractures/dislocation in our Emergency Room was recruited into the study. All patients gave informed consent. Reduction of fractures was done 15 minutes following the administration of ketamine 5 mg/kg orally. The patients were observed during and after the procedure and the findings entered into a proforma. The data obtained were analyzed using simple statistical methods and the results presented in a table. The findings are discussed. Results: There were 9 males and 2 females with an age range of 4 yrs to 48 yrs. Pain levels were assessed using verbal rating scales. Seven patients (64%) had severe pain before administration of ketamine while 2 patients (18%) each had mild and moderate pain respectively. Four patients had Colle’s fracture only and 1 patient had a Colle’s fracture with a supracondylar femoral fracture. Two patients had tibial fractures, one patient had a complete knee dislocation, while 2 others had ulnar/radial fractures. One other patient had humeral and tibial fractures. For up to 15 minutes after the procedures all but one patient were pain-free. Five (5) patients (45.5%) were noticed to have drowsiness, 3 patients (27%) were sedated while 2 patients (18%) had no side-effects at all. Five (5) patients (45.5%) reported excellent analgesia while 6 patients (64%) said the intra and post procedure analgesia was very good. Conclusions: Oral ketamine may be useful in providing analgesia for minor procedures in the emergency room. Ketamine when sweetened with a soda drink appears to be palatable with a rapid onset of action and few side effects. Thus ketamine given orally may be a cheaper and more accessible option for effective pain-relief in the emergency room. There is a need to conduct more studies on a larger number of patients.