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R. Bolton, “Habermas’s Theory of Communicative Action and the Theory of Social Capital. Regional Science Association,” San Diego, 2005, p. 39.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Nature of Conflicts, Tensions and Exploitation in Sharecropping in Rural Sindh

    AUTHORS: Ghulam Hussain, Anwaar Mohyuddin, Shuja Ahmed

    KEYWORDS: Life-World; Rationality; Conflict; Sharecroppers; Exploitation; Liminality

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol.3 No.8, December 20, 2013

    ABSTRACT: This paper explains the causes of conflicts and tensions in sharecropping relationships, the nature and level of exploitation. It explains the immediate as well as root causes of conflicts that emerge between sharecroppers and landlords. Life-world of peasants of Sindh has been explored at village, sub-regional and regional level. It was found that the historical systemic structures of exploitation still exist in its refined form in peasant life-world. Peasant life within village and among village peasants is relatively peaceful. Conflicts emerge or take serious turn when outside systemic agents get involved in issues related to sharecropper and landlord. Historically property rights given to big landlords and feudal lords by imperialistic forces while snatching the indigenous right of peasants to self-cultivation, is the root cause that has spawned several sub-systemic pathologies in the life-world of peasants. Absentee landlordism, Kamdaari system, debt bondage, social bondage, system of Kann, landlessness, adulterated hybrid seeds, and issues of Sanad are some of the sub-systemic evils that have emerged over the years. All such sub-systemic structures put bigger and influential landlords into strategic advantage over the sharecroppers, particularly landless peasants; the imbalance that perpetuates “permanent liminality” suppresses reciprocal dialogues and discourages mutual negotiations. Outside systemic factors like SHO-Landlord nexus or Feudal-Police-Tapedar troika play central role in conflict creation and exacerbation in landlord-sharecropper relationship leading to bloody conflicts, caste wars, tribal feuds and honor-killings, thus, further differentiating and alienating life-world and the system rural Sindh.