Recycling of Ornamental Stones Hazardous Wastes
Abdel Monem Soltan, Zeinab Taman, Baher El-Kaliouby
DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.24031   PDF    HTML     3,783 Downloads   8,243 Views   Citations


Sawing and polishing of the ornamental stones always generate large amount of solid and wet hazardous wastes, which pollute the environment. In Shak Al-Thoaban area, East Cairo, Egypt, huge amounts of these wastes were accumulated, during the last years, as rejects “Solid” and wet “Sahala” wastes, representing one of the main sources of environmental pollution. The aim of this work is to characterize and evaluate these wastes for recycling in quicklime production. Hence, samples of both wastes were investigated for their chemical and mineral composition applying XRF, XRD, DTA and TGA methods. Free lime content and reactivity (RDIN) of both samples were also determined after calcination for differnt soaking times (0.25 - 2.0 hrs) at 1000℃. The results were interpreted in relation to composition and microstructure of the fired samples as revealed by TLM and SEM methods. The RDIN reactivity of the resulted lime is changeable along soaking time at 1000℃because of the microfabric of its crystallites. The lime of the “Solid” sample is preserving the original limestone microstructure that contributes in its higher RDIN reactivity values at all soaking times. The relatively higher degree of grain growth of lime crystallites in the “Sahala” sample leads to its lower reactivity. The optimum soaking times for the highest lime reactivity are 0.25 and 1 hr. for the “Solid” and “Sahala” samples, respectively. On increasing soaking time up to 2 hrs, both samples show minimum RDIN values. The “Solid” sample also gives higher free lime content than the “Sahala” one at all soaking times. It is gradually increased in the former sample up to a maximum (96% - 97%) on increasing soaking time up to 1-2hrs. On the other side, a maximum free lime (~95%) is detected in “Sahala” sample at 0.25hr soaking time and gradually decreased to (87%) up to 2hrs.

Share and Cite:

A. Soltan, Z. Taman and B. El-Kaliouby, "Recycling of Ornamental Stones Hazardous Wastes," Natural Resources, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 244-249. doi: 10.4236/nr.2011.24031.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. A. Dardir, A. K. Hassan and K. M. Abu Zeid, “Building and Construction Raw Materials in Egypt: An Overview,” Proceeding of Geological Survey of Egypt. Cem. Conference, Cairo, 19-22 November1996, pp. 89-98.
[2] M. M. Hassaan, “The Economic Potential of the Mesozoic- Cenozoic Carbonate Rocks in Egypt,” Sedimentology of Egypt, Vol. 12, 2004, pp. 1-22.
[3] K. E. Alyamac and R. Ince, “A Preliminary Concrete Mix Design for SCC with Marble Powders,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1201-1210. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.08.012
[4] G. Rego, C. Martínez, A. Quero, T. P. Blanco and J. M. Borquea, “The Effects of Dust Inhalation in Slate Industry Workers,” Medicina Clinica, Vol. 116, No. 8, 2001, pp. 290-291.
[5] A. S. Reis, “Estudo do Aproveitamento do Resíduo de Beneficiamento de Resíduo de Rochas Ornamentais na Fabricac? ?o de Ladrilho Hidráulico Piso Tátil,” Master Dissertation, UFES-PPGEC, Vitória, 2008.
[6] H. Hebhoub, H. Aoun, M. Belachia, H. Houari and E. Gho- rbel, “Use of Waste Marble Aggregates in Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1167-1171. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.09.037
[7] S. N. Monteiro, L. A. Pecanha and C. M. F. Vieira, “Reformulation of Roofing Tiles Body with Addition of Granite Waste from Sawing Operations,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 24, No. 8, 2004, pp. 2349- 2356. doi:10.1016/S0955-2219(03)00638-1
[8] M. A. Monteiro, M. M. Jordan, M. B. Almendro-Candel, T. Senfeliu and M. S. Hernández-Crespo, “The Use of a Calcium Carbonate Residue from the Stone Industry in Manufacturing of Ceramic Tile Bodies,” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2009, pp. 186-189. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2008.08.003
[9] P. Torres, H. R. Fernandes, S. Agathopoulus, D. U. Tulyaganov and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Incorporation of Granite Cutting Sludge in Industrial Porcelain Tile Formulations,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 24, No. 10-11, 2004, pp. 3177-3185. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2003.10.039
[10] P. Torres, H. R. Fernandes, S. Olhero and J. M. F. Ferreira, “Incorporation of Wastes from Granite Rock Cutting and Polishing Industries to Produce Roof Tiles,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2009, pp. 23- 30. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.05.045
[11] A. J. Souza, B. C. A. Pinheiro and J. N. F. Holanda, “Processing of Floor Tiles Bearing Ornamental Rock-Cutting Waste,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 210, No. 14, 2010, pp. 1898-1904. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.07.001
[12] A. J. Souza, B. C. A. Pinheiro and J. N. F. Holanda,. “Recycling of Gneiss Rock Waste in the Manufacture of Vitrified Floor Tiles,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 3, 2010, pp. 685-689. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.09.032
[13] C. M. F. Vieira, T. M. Soares, R. Sánchez and S. N. Monteiro, “Incorporation of Granite Waste in Red Ceramics,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 373, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 115-121. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.12.038
[14] R. M. Romualdo, S. F. Heber, A. N. Gelmires, L. L. de Helio and C. F. Heber, “Use of Granite Sawing Wastes in the Production of Ceramic Bricks and Tiles,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1149-1158. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2004.04.020
[15] A. Wilson, A. V. Francisco and M. S. Ana, “Using Ornamental Stone Cutting Rejects as Raw Materials for Red Clay Ceramic Products: Properties and Microstructure Development,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 435, 2006, pp. 327-332. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2006.07.091
[16] J. M. S. Moreira, J. P. V. T Manhaes and J. N. F. Holanda, “Processing of Red Ceramic Using Ornamental Rock Powder Waste,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 196, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 88-93. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.05.008
[17] P. Asokan, S. Mohini and R. A. Shyam, “Solid Wastes Ge- Neration in India and Their Recycling Potential in Building Materials,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2007, pp. 2311-2320. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.015
[18] I. Mármol, P. Ballester, S. Cerro, G. Monros, J. Morales and L. Sanchez, “Use of Granite Sludge Wastes for the Production of Coloured Cement-Based Mortars,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 32, No. 8, 2010, pp. 617- 622. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.06.003
[19] A. Nuno, B. Fernando and R. S. Jose, “Recycling of Stone Slurry in Industrial Activities: Application to Concrete Mixtures,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2007, pp. 810-819. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.09.018
[20] A. M. Segadaesa, M. A. Carvalhob and W. Accharc, “Using Marble and Granite Rejects to Enhance the Processing of Clay Products,” Applied Clay Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2005, pp. 42-52. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2005.03.004
[21] F. Saboya Jr., G. C. Xavier and J. Alexandre, “The Use of the Powder Marble Byproduct to Enhance the Properties of Brick Ceramic,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1950-1960. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.05.029
[22] ASTM Standard C25-06, “Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Limestone, Quicklime and Hydrated Lime,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2006.
[23] J. H. Potgieter, S. S. Potgieter, S. S. Moja and A. Mulaba- Bfubiandi, “The Standard Reactivity Test as a Measurement of Lime’s Quality,” Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 102, No. 1, 2002, pp. 67-69.
[24] R. C. Mackenzie, “Differential Thermal Analysis,” Acade- mic Press, London, Vol. 1, 1970.
[25] R. Boynton, “The Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1988.
[26] J. A. Oates, “Lime and Limestone: Chemistry and Tech- nology, Production and Uses,” Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1998.
[27] H. Kainer, E. Specht and R. Jascher, “Pore Diffusion, Reaction and Thermal Conduction Coefficients of Various Limestones and Their Influence on Decomposition Time,” ZKG, Vol. 39, No. 5, 1986, pp. 259-268.
[28] W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen and D. R. Uhlmann, “Introduction to Ceramics,” 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1976.
[29] R. Gotthardt, W. Dornap and H. Wilder, “Effect of Limestone Structure and Facies on the “R” Value as a Criterion of the Degree of Burning,” ZKG International, Vol. 34, No. 8, 1981, pp. 424-429.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.