Passive Smoking and Infectious Disease: A Serious Hazard for Cardiovascular System
Aurelio Leone
DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25090   PDF    HTML     4,874 Downloads   8,149 Views   Citations


Exposure to passive smoking is usually associated with heavy changes in both function and structure of the cardiovascular system at different levels: coronary circulation, heart metabolism, myocardial muscle. These changes may be transient but may have characteristics of irreversibility. Major determinant of cardiovascular alterations is hypoxia due to tobacco products of the environment although a large number of alterations affect immune t-cells and antibody response. All infectious diseases which involve cardiovascular system, including some tropical patterns, particularly Chagas disease, are adversely influenced as a consequence of a continuous although irregular exposure to passive smoking, which worsens the degree of cardiac muscle alterations at different levels like myocardium, coronary arteries and both these structures. Therefore, exposure to passive smoking must be avoided for those individuals suffering from infectious diseases of the heart whatever factor can be responsible.

Share and Cite:

A. Leone, "Passive Smoking and Infectious Disease: A Serious Hazard for Cardiovascular System," International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 550-555. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25090.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] A. Leone, “Cardiovascular Damage from Smoking: A Fact or Belief?” International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1993, pp. 113-117. doi:10.1016/0167-5273(93)90169-H
[2] C. B. Sherman, “Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1991, pp. 643- 658.
[3] A. Leone, “The Heart: A Target Organ for Cigarette Smoking,” Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders, Vol. 3, 1992, pp. 197-201.
[4] US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, “The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Cardiovascular Disease,” US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Office of Smoking and Health, DHHS Publication NO (PHS) 84-50204, Rockville, 1983.
[5] A. Leone, “Cigarette Smoking and Health of the Heart,” Journal of the Royal Society of Health, Vol. 115, No. 6, 1995, pp. 354-355. doi:10.1177/146642409511500605
[6] E. C. Hammond and L. Garfinkel, “Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke and Aortic Aneurysm,” Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 19, 1969, pp. 167-182
[7] P. E. McBride, “The Health Consequences of Smoking. Cardiovascular Diseases,” Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1992, pp. 333-353.
[8] W. S. Aronow, “Effect of Passive Smoking on Angina Pectoris,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 299, 1978, pp. 21-24. doi:10.1056/NEJM197807062990105
[9] D. Sparrow, T. R. Dawber and T. Colton, “The Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Prognosis after a First Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 31, No. 6-7, 1978, pp. 425-432. doi:10.1016/0021-9681(78)90006-1
[10] A. Leone, F. Bertanelli, L. Mori, P. Fabiano and G. Bertoncini, “Ventricular Arrhythmias by Passive Smoking in Patients with Pre-Existing Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of the American College Cardiology, Vol. 3, 1992, p. 256(A).
[11] C. Wilhelmsson, J. A. Vedin, D. Elmfeldt, G. Tibblin and L. Wilhelmsen, “Smoking and Myocardial Infarction,” Lancet, Vol. 1, No. 7904, 1975, pp. 415-420. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(75)91488-9
[12] O. Auerbach, H. W Carter, L. Garfinkel and E. C. Hammond, “Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease. A Macroscopic and Microscopic Study,” Chest, Vol. 70, No. 6, 1976, pp. 697-705. doi:10.1378/chest.70.6.697
[13] D. D. Reid, P. J. S. Hamilton, P. McCartney and G. Rose, “Smoking and Other Risk Factors in Coronary Heart Disease in British Civil Servants,” Lancet, Vol. 308, No. 7993, 1976, pp. 979-984. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(76)90830-8
[14] S. A. Glantz and W. W. Parmley, “Passive Smoking and Heart Disease,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 273, No. 13, 1995, pp. 1047-1053. doi:10.1001/jama.273.13.1047
[15] A. J. Wells, “Passive Smoking as a Cause of Heart Disease,” Journal of American College Cardiology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1994, pp. 546-554. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(94)90315-8
[16] C. L. Meinert, S. Forman, D. R. Jacobs and J. Stamler, “Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor in Men with a Prior History of Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 32, 1979, pp. 415-425. doi:10.1016/0021-9681(79)90102-4
[17] S. A. Glantz and W. W. Parmley, “Passive Smoking and Heart Disease: Epidemiology, Physiology, and Biochemistry,” Circulation, Vol. 83, 1991, pp. 1-12.
[18] L. Baer and I. Radichevich, “Cigarette Smoking in Hypertensive Patients. Blood Pressure and Endocrine Responses,” American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 4, 1985, pp. 564-568. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(85)90396-1
[19] D. S. Celermajer, M. R. Adams, P. Clarkson, J. Robinson, R. McRedie, A. Donald, et al., “Passive Smoking and Impaired Endothelium-Dependent Arterial Dilatation in Healthy Young Adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 334, No. 3, 1996, pp. 150-154. doi:10.1056/NEJM199601183340303
[20] A. Leone and M. Lopez, “Oral Contraception, Ovarian Disorders and Tabacco in Myocardial Infarction of Woman,” Pathologica, Vol. 78, 1986, pp. 237-242
[21] S. Pojola, P. Siltanen and M. Romo, “Five-Year Survival of 728 Patients after Myocardial Infarction,” British Heart Journal, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1980, pp. 176-1183. doi:10.1136/hrt.43.2.176
[22] A. Leone, “Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Other Coronary Risk Factors in Atherosclerosis: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Preventive Measures,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol. 9, No. 29, 2003, pp. 2417-2423. doi:10.2174/1381612033453802
[23] C. J. Chew, G. M. Ziady, M. J. Raphael, M. Nellen and C. M. Oakley, “Primary Restrictive Cardiomyopathy. Non-Tropical Endomyocardial Fibrosis and Hypereosi-nophilic Heart Disease,” British Heart Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, 1977, pp. 399-413. doi:10.1136/hrt.39.4.399
[24] W. A. Thomas, R. W. Randall, E. F. Bland and B. Castleman, “Endocardial Fibroelastosis; a Factor in Heart Disease of Obscure Etiology: A Study of 20 Autopsied Cases in Children and Adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 251, 1954, pp. 327-338. doi:10.1056/NEJM195408262510902
[25] J. C. Byrd, “Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Medical and Legal Issues,” Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1992, pp. 377-397.
[26] R. A. Greenberg, N. J. Haley, R. A. Ersel and F. A. Loda, “Measuring the Exposure of Infants to Tobacco Smoke,” The New England Journal of Medicine,, Vol. 310, No. 17, 1984, pp. 1075-1078. doi:10.1056/NEJM198404263101703
[27] D. P. Strachan, M. J. Jarvis and C. Feyerabend, “Passive Smoking, Salivary Cotinine Concentrations and Middle-Ear Effusion in 7-Year Old Children,” British Heart Journal, Vol. 289, No. 6687, 1989, pp. 1549-1552.
[28] A. Leone, D. Giannini, C. Bellotto and A. Balbarini, “Passive Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 175-182. doi:10.2174/1570161043476366
[29] A. Leone, L. Mori, F. Bertanelli, P. Fabiano and M. Filippelli, “Indoor Passive Smoking: Its Effects on Cardiac Performance,” International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991, pp. 247-252. doi:10.1016/0167-5273(91)90354-R
[30] H. Sumida, H. Watanabe, K. Kugiyama, M. Ohgushi, T. Matsumura and H. Yasue, “Does Passive Smoking Impair Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Artery Dilation in Women?” Journal of the American College Cardiology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1998, pp. 811-815. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00010-2
[31] D. P. Strachan, “Predictors of Death from Aortic Aneurysm among Middle-Aged Men: The Whitehall Study,” British Journal of Surgery, Vol. 78, No. 4, 1991, pp. 401- 404. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800780407
[32] W. S. Aronow and S. N. Rokaw, “Carboxyhemoglobin Caused by Smoking Nonnicotine Cigarettes. Effects in Angina Pectoris?” Circulation, Vol. 44, 1971, pp. 782-788.
[33] W. S. Aronow, “Aggravation of Angina Pectoris by Two Percent Carboxyhemoglobin,” American Heart Journal, Vol. 101, No. 2, 1981, pp. 154-157. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(81)90658-X
[34] N. L. Benowitz, “Nicotine and Coronary Heart Disease,” Trends in Cardiovasccular Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1991, pp. 315-321. doi:10.1016/1050-1738(91)90068-P
[35] S. Miyaura, H. Eguchi and J. M. Johnston, “Effect of a Cigarette Smoke Extract on the Metabolism of the Proinflammatoryautacoid, Platelet-Activating Factor,” Circulation Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, 1992, pp. 341-347.
[36] T. W. Meade, J. Imeson and Y. Stirling, “Effects of Change in Smoking and Other Characteristics on Clotting Factors and the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease,” Lancet, Vol. 2, No. 8566, 1987, pp. 986-988. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(87)92556-6
[37] M. C. Stone and J. M. Thorpe, “Plasma-Fibrinogen—A Major Coronary Risk Factor,” The Journal of the Royal College of General Practctitioners, Vol. 35, 1985, pp. 565-569.
[38] A. Leone, L. Landini Jr, O. Biadi and A. Balbarini, “Smoking and Cardiovascular System: Cellular Features of the Damage,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol. 14, No. 18, 2008, pp. 1771-1777. doi:10.2174/138161208784746699
[39] A. Leone, F. Bertanelli, L. Mori, P. Fabiano and A. Battaglia, “Features of Ischaemic Cardiac Pathology Resulting from Cigarette Smoking,” Journal of Smoking-Related Disorders, Vol. 5, 1994, pp. 109-114.
[40] A. W. Melville, “A Problem in Tropical Cardiology,” British Medicine Journal, Vol. 2, No. 5162, 1959, pp. 1273- 1277.
[41] A. A. Zilton and A. C. Guimaraes, “Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Bahia, Brazil,” British Medicine Journal, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1964, pp. 813-820.
[42] J. D. Ball, A. W. Williams and J. N. Davies, “Endomyocardial Fibrosis,” Lancet, Vol. 266, No. 6821, 1954, pp. 1049-1054. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)91619-0
[43] J. M. Hagar and S. H. Rahimtoola, “Chagas’ Heart Disease,” Current Problems in Cardiology, Vol. 20, 1995, pp. 825-924.
[44] A. Rassi Jr, A. Rassi and W. C. Little, “Chagas’ Heart Di- sease,” Clinical Cardiology, Vol. 23, 2000, pp. 883-889.
[45] N. L. Benowitz, “Cotinine as a Biomarker of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure,” Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1996, pp. 188-204.
[46] D. P. Strachan and D. G. Cook, “Health Effects of Passive Smoking. Parental Smoking and Childhood Asthma Longitudinal and Case-Control Studies,” Thorax, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1998, pp. 204-212. doi:10.1136/thx.53.3.204
[47] P. G. Holt, “Immune and Inflammatory Function in Cigarettes Smokers,” Thorax, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1987, pp. 241- 249. doi:10.1136/thx.42.4.241
[48] M. A. Masi, J. A. Hanley, P. Ernst and M. R. Becklake, “Environmental Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Lung Function in Young Adults,” American Reviews of Respiratory Disease, Vol. 138, No. 2, 1998, pp. 296-299.
[49] K. H. Svendsen, L. H. Kuller, M. J. Martin and J. K. Ockene, “Effectsof Passive Smoking in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 126, 1987, pp. 783-795.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.