Quit smoking improves gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and quality of life


Background: Smoking is considered to be risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The present study aimed to reveal whether quit smoking improves GERD symptoms and QOL of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, 33 patients who participated in a 12-week quit smoking program filled out the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire, and SF8 QOL questionnaire. Patients filled out the questionnaires at baseline and during the program at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. In the FSSG, the responses were scored and the reflux score (RS), dysmotility score (DS) and total score (TS) were calculated. Results: There were 22 males and 11 females. Their mean age was 54.8 ± 13.0 (mean ± SD) yr, BMI was 22.9 ± 4.0, and duration of smoking was 33.5 ± 12.5 years. Ten patients belonged to GERD subgroup (baselineFSSGscore ≥ 8). All patients were successful at quit smoking. Scores of TS/RS/DS are 8.6 ± 1.8 (mean ± SE)/4.2 ± 0.9/4.5 ± 0.9 at baseline, 4.7 ± 1.6**/2.5 ± 0.9**/2.3 ± 0.7** at 2 w, 5.7 ± 1.3**/2.6 ± 0.6*/3.0 ± 0.7* at 4 w, 4.5 ± 1.4*/2.2 ± 0.8*/2.3 ± 0.8* at 8 w and 3.7 ± 1.2**/1.7 ± 0.6**/2.0 ± 0.7** at 12 w, respectively (**p < 0.01, *p < 0.05 vs. baseline). Among GERD subgroup, Scores of TS/RS/DS are 18.0 ± 2.9/8.9 ± 1.6/9.1 ± 1.5 at baseline, 8.8 ± 3.0/5.1 ± 1.7/3.7 ± 1.6 at 2 w, 10.8 ± 2.9/5.4 ± 1.6/5.4 ± 1.5 at 4 w, 7.6 ± 2.9*/4.1 ± 1.6/3.5 ± 1.5* at 8 w and 7.1 ± 2.9*/3.2 ± 1.6*/3.9 ± 1.5* at 12w, respectively. Regarding QOL, physical component score has significantly improved at 2, 4, 8 and 12 w and mental component score at 4w, respectively. Conclusions: Quit smoking significantly improved not only GERD symptoms but also QOL, indicating that quit smoking might be an option in the treatment strategy of GERD symptoms.

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Nakajima, K. , Nagahara, A. , Kurosawa, A. , Seyama, K. , Asaoka, D. , Osada, T. , Hojo, M. and Watanabe, S. (2011) Quit smoking improves gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and quality of life. Health, 3, 677-683. doi: 10.4236/health.2011.311114.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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