Influence of Inter-Particle Distance, Entrapped Water Volume and Salinity of Water on the Escape Velocity of Particles on a Riverbank
Sanchayan Mukherjee, Asis MazumdarP
DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.37092   PDF    HTML     4,459 Downloads   7,349 Views   Citations


The mechanism of erosion of a riverbank is not easy to analyze and each sediment particle is under influence of number of forces. Among all these forces, force of cohesion between the particles plays a very dominant and significant role, and, till date, not much progress has been made to analyze this force in a deterministic manner. A particle is bound to its neighboring particles under this force of cohesion. In this paper, the analysis of forces acting on a particle on a riverbank has been made with a model called the Truncated Pyramid Model. A particle requires a certain velocity to escape from the riverbank and determination of the escape velocity can pave the way for finding out other parameters like entrainment rate, erosion coefficient and so on. Calculation and estimation of riverbank erosion rate is an important aspect of river basin management. In this paper it has been shown that the escape velocity is dependent on certain micro-level parameters like inter-particle distance and volume of the water bridge between two adjacent particles. Also, for saline water the particle requires less velocity to escape compared to the pure-water scenario. The findings of the present paper exactly fall in line with the results of another paper where the researchers showed that cohesive force between the particles decreases as water turns from pure to impure.

Share and Cite:

S. Mukherjee and A. MazumdarP, "Influence of Inter-Particle Distance, Entrapped Water Volume and Salinity of Water on the Escape Velocity of Particles on a Riverbank," Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2011, pp. 763-770. doi: 10.4236/eng.2011.37092.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Mukherjee and A. Mazumdar, “Study of Effect of the Variation of Inter-Particle Distance on the Erodibility of a Riverbank under Cohesion with a New Model,” Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2010, pp. 235-242. doi:10.1016/j.jher.2010.01.001
[2] A. J. Odgaard and C. E. Mosconi, “Streambank Protection by Submerged Vanes,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 113, No. 4, 1987, pp. 520-536. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1987)113:4(520)
[3] A. J. Odgaard, “Streambank Erosion along Two Rivers in Iowa,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 23, No. 7, 1987, pp.1125-1236. doi:10.1029/WR023i007p01225
[4] S. E. Darby, D. Gessler and C. R. Thorne, “Computer Program for Stability Analysis of Steep, Cohesive Riverbanks,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2000, pp.175-190. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(200002)25:2<175::AID-ESP74>3.0.CO;2-K
[5] S. E. Darby and I. Delbono, “A Model of Equilibrium Bed Topography for Meander Bends with Erodible Banks,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 27, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1057-1085. doi:10.1002/esp.393
[6] J. G. Duan, “Analytical Approach to Calculate Rate of Bank Erosion,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 11, 2005, pp. 980-989. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:11(980)
[7] M. A. Lenzi, L. Mao and F. Comiti, “Effective Discharge for Sediment Transport in a Mountain River: Computational Approaches and Geomorphic Effectiveness,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 326, No. 1-4, 2006, pp. 257-276. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.10.031
[8] P. Meunier, F. Métivier, E. Lajeunesse, A. S. Mériaux and J. Faurec, “Flow Pattern and Sediment Transport in a Braided River: The ‘Torrent de St Pierre (French Alps)’,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 330, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 496-505. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.04.009
[9] M. Achite and S. Ouillon, “Suspended Sediment Transport in a Semiarid Watershed, Wadi Abd, Algeria (1973- 1995),” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 343, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 187-202. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.06.026
[10] V. Richefeu, M. S. El Youssoufi, R. Peyroux and F. Radiai, “A Model of Capillary Cohesion for Numerical Simulations of 3D Polydisperse Granular Media,” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 32, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1365-1383. doi:10.1002/nag.674
[11] F. Soulie, M. S. El Youssoufi, F. Cherblanc and C. Saix, “Capillary Cohesion and Mechanical Strength of Polydisperse Granular Materials,” European Physical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2006, pp. 349-357.
[12] S. Poorni, R. Miglani, M. R. Srinivasan and R. Indira, “Comparative Evaluation of the Surface Tension and the pH of Calcium Hydroxide Mixed with Five Different Vehicles: An in Vitro Study,” Indian Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2009, pp. 17-20. doi:10.4103/0970-9290.49050
[13] D. P. Bakker, J. W. Klijnstra, H. J. Busscher and H. C. Van der Mei, “The Effect of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Bacterial Adhesion to Conditioning Films Adsorbed on Glass From Natural Seawater Collected during Different Seasons,” Biofouling, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2003, pp. 391-397. doi:10.1080/08927010310001634898
[14] J. Morgan, “Introduction to University Physics,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1963.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.