Development of a Korean Version of Pro-Change’s Processes of Change Measure for Effective Stress Management


This study aimed to develop a Korean version of Pro-change’s processes of change measure for effective stress management (PPSM). Effective stress management refers to any form of healthy activity practiced at least 20 min per day to manage stress. PPSM includes 30 items and consists of two higher-order and ten first-order factors. It measures the covert and overt strategies that individuals use to initiate and maintain effective stress management, namely the processes of change. The participants included 542 Korean college students. The Korean version of PPSM was found to consist of two higher-order and ten first-order factors, which was consistent with the original PPSM. Reliability was examined in terms of internal consistency. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0.83, which was largely compatible to those of the original, Japanese, and Chinese PPSM. The Korean PPSM version was validated against the stages of change for effective stress management. The differences in the scores of the processes of change were largely consistent with those of previous studies.

Share and Cite:

Deng, K. , Tsuda, A. , Horiuchi, S. , Kim, E. , Matsuda, T. , Doi, S. , Tsuchiyagaito, A. , Kobayashi, H. and Hong, K. (2014) Development of a Korean Version of Pro-Change’s Processes of Change Measure for Effective Stress Management. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 41-48. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.28007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Deng, K., Tsuda, A., Horiuchi, S. and Matsuda, T. (2013) Relationships between Stages and Processes of Changefor Effective Stress Management in Chinese College Students. Stress Science Research, 28, 74-81.
[2] Evers, K.E., Evans, J.L., Fava, J.L. and Prochaska, J.O. (2000) Development and Validation of Trans Theoretical Model Variables Applied to Stress Management. Presented at the 21st Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Nashville.
[3] Evers, K.E., Prochaska, J.O., Johnson, J. L., Mauriello, L. M., Padula, J. A. and Prochaska, J.M. (2006) A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Population- and Transtheoretical Model-based Stress-management Intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 521-529.
[4] Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Kim, E., Hong, K.-S. and Prochaska, J.M. (2010) Relationship between Stage of Change and Self-Efficacy for Stress Management Behavior in Korean University Students. Japanese Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 12-20.
[5] Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Kim, E., Morita, T. and Kobayashi, H. (2013) Effectiveness of the Expert System for Modifying Effective Stress Management Behavior based on the Transtheoretical Model in College Students. Stress Management Research, 9, 69-84.
[6] Horiuchi, S., Tsuda, A., Prochaska, J. M., Kobayashi, H. and Mihara, K. (2012) Relationships between Stages and Processes of Change for Effective Stress Management in Japanese College Students. Psychology, 3, 494-499.
[7] Kim, E., Tsuda, A., Horiuchi, S., Park, Y.-S., Kim, U. and Hong, K.-S. (2009) The Relationship between Stages of Change for Stress Management and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Korean University Students. Kurume University Psychological Research, 8, 103-110.
[8] Kim, U., Park, Y-S, Kim, E., Tsuda, A. and Horiuchi, S. (2010) The Influence of Parental Social Support and Resiliency of Efficacy on Stress, Depression, and Stress Management Behavior: Comparative Analysis of Elementary School, Middle School and University Students. Korean Journal of Psychology and Social Issues, 16, 197-219.
[9] Nishimura, Y. and Chikamoto, Y. (2005) Health Promotion in Japan: Comparisons with U.S. Perspectives. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19, 213-215.
[10] McEwen, B.S. (2007) Physiology and Neurobiology of Stress and Adaptation: Central Role of the Brain. Physiological Reviews, 87, 873-904.
[11] Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc. (2003) Road to Healthy Living: A Guide for Effective Stress Management. Pro-Change Behavior Systems, Inc., Kingston.
[12] Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C. (1983) Stages and Processes of Self-Change of Smoking: Toward an Integrative Model of Change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390-395.
[13] ]rochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C. and Norcross, J.C. (1992) In Search of How People Change. Applications to Addictive Behaviors, 47, 1102-1114.
[14] Vandenberg, R.J. and Lance, C.E. (2000) A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Invariance Literature: Suggestions, Practices, and Recommendations for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4-70.
[15] Vierhausa, M., Maassa, A., Fridricia, M. and Lohausa, A. (2010) Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change. Educational Psychology, 30, 465-480.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.