Epidemiological Analysis of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Outbreaks in Pakistan


The current study reports the outbreaks of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in the small ruminant population of Pakistan. The objectives were to understand the clinical picture of disease under field conditions, estimate the basic epidemiological parameters for the local population of small ruminants and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of PPR during 2005 to 2007 in Pakistan. A total of 62 outbreaks were investigated among sheep and goat flocks in the five provinces of Pakistan and Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The PPR virus activity in these outbreaks was demonstrated by clinical picture and presence of PPR virus specific antibodies by employing cELISA. The combined estimates of mean cumulative morbidity and mortality for sheep and goats were estimated 65.37% and 26.51% respectively with a case fatality of 40.40%. The species specific mean cumulative morbidity, mortality and case fatality for goats were 68.80%, 29.45% and 42.75% respectively, while these estimates for sheep were 48.77%, 14.98% and of 26.16% respectively. These estimates for goats were significantly higher (P < 0.001 to P = 0.001) than those for sheep. It was concluded that PPR is wide spread throughout the country and epidemiological picture suggest that disease has established as an endemic infection in the country.

Share and Cite:

Zahur, A. , Ullah, A. , Irshad, H. , Latif, A. , Ullah, R. , Jahangir, M. , Afzal, M. , Khan, S. and Salaria, S. (2014) Epidemiological Analysis of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Outbreaks in Pakistan. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 18-26. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Furley, C.W., Taylor W.P. and Obi. T.U. (1987) An Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants in a Zoological Collection. Veterinary Record, 7.
[2] Diallo, A. (2006) Control of Peste des Petits Ruminants and Poverty Alleviation. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 53, 11-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.01012.x
[3] Baldlock, C., Forman, T., Geering, B. and Taylor, W.P. (1999) Report of the FAO-Japan Cooperative Project “Collection of Information on Animal Production and Health” FAO, Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group: Rome, Italy.
[4] Perry, B.D., Randolph, T.F., McDermott, J.J., Sones, K.R. and Thornton, P.K. (2002) Investing in Animal Health Research to Alleviate Poverty. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.
[5] Odo, B.I. (2003) Comparative Study of Some Prevalent Diseases of Ecotype Goats Reared in Southeastern Nigeria. Small Ruminant Research, 50, 203-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00101-9
[6] Gibbs, E.P.J., Taylor, W.P., Lawman, M.J.P. and Bryant, J. (1979) Classification of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus as the Fourth Member of the Genus Morbillivirus. Intervirology, 11, 268-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000149044
[7] Gargadennec, L. and Lalanne. A. (1942) La Peste des Petits Ruminants. Bull. Serv. Zoo. A. O. F., 5, 15-21.
[8] Shaila, M.S., Shamaki, D., Forsyth, M.A., Diallo, A., Goatley, L., Kitching, R.P. and Barrett, T. (1996) Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses. Virus Research, 43, 149-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1702(96)01312-3
[9] Ozkul, A., Akca, Y., Alkan, F., Barrett, T., Karaoglu, T., Daglap, S.B., Anderson, J., Yesilbag, K., Cokcaliskan, C., Genacy, A. and Burgu, I. (2002) Prevalence, Distribution, and Host Range of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, 8, 709-712. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0807.010471
[10] Taylor, W.P. and Barrett, T. (2007) Rinderpest and Peste des Petits Ruminants. In: Aitken, I.D., Ed., Diseases of Sheep, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 450-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753316.ch61
[11] Wang, Z., Bao, J., Wu, X., Liu, Y., Li, L., Liu, C., Suo, L., Xie, Z., Zhao, W., Zhang, W., Yang, N., Li, J., Wang, S. and Wang, J. (2009) Peste des Petitis Ruminants Virus in Tibet, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, 15, 299-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1502.080817
[12] FAO. (2009) PPR in Morocco, EMPRESS., Editor.
[13] Athar, M., Muhammad, G., F., A., Shakoor, A., Maqbool, A. and Chaudhry, N.I. (1995) An Outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants-Like Disease Among Goats in Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 15, 140-143.
[14] Abubakar, M., Ali, Q. and Khan, H. (2008) Prevalence and Mortality Rate of Peste des Petitis Ruminant (PPR): Possible Association with Abortion in Goat. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 317-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9105-2
[15] Khan, H.A., Siddique, M., Abubakar, M., Arshad, M.J. and Hussain, M. (2008) Prevalence and Distribution of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Small Ruminants. Small Ruminant Research, 79, 152-157.
[16] Zahur, A.B., Irshad, H., Hussain, M., Ullah, A., Jahangir, M., Khan, M.Q. and Farooq, M.S. (2008) The Epidemiology of Peste des Petits Ruminants In Pakistan. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 27, 877-884.
[17] Thrusfield, M. (2005) Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd Edition, Blackwell Publishing, Ox-ford.
[18] Kirkwood, B.R. and Sterne, J.A.C. (2003) Medical Statistics. 2nd Edition, Blackwell Sciences, Lon-don.
[19] Anderson, J. and McKay, J.A. (1994) The Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Cattle, Sheep and Goats and the Possible Implications to Rinderpest Control Programmes. Epidemiology & Infection, 112, 225-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268800057599
[20] IAEA and FAO, ELISA Data Interchange. Vienna, Austria.
[21] Libeau, G., Diallo, A., Colas, F. and Guerre, L. (1994) Rapid Differential Diagnosis of Rinderpest And Peste des Petits Ruminants Using an Immunocapture ELISA. Veterinary Record, 134, 300-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.134.12.300
[22] Taylor, W. (1984) The Distribution and Epidemiology of Peste des Petits Ruminants. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2, 157-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(84)90059-X
[23] Chowdhury, S.A. and Mutalib, A. (2003) Goat Production in Bangladesh—Present Status and Future Programme. International Seminar on Goat Production. Islamabad, Paksitan.
[24] Roeder, P.L. and Obi, T.U. (1999) Recognizing Peste des Petites Ruminants: A Field Manual. FAO Animal Health Manual, 5.
[25] Government of Pakistan (2006) Livestock Census, A.C. Organization, Editor. 2006: Lahore.
[26] Anderson, E.C. (1995) Morbillivirus Infections in Wildlife (in Relation to Their Population Biology and Disease Control in Domestic Animals. Veterinary Microbiology, 44, 319-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1135(95)00026-7
[27] Ishaque, S.M. (1993) Sheep Management System, in Sheep Production in Pakistan. In: Mackintosh, J.B., Ed., Pakistan Agricultural Research Council: Islamabad, Pakistan.
[28] Majok, A.A. (2001) Animal Health Component, in Annual Report. Islamabad, Pakistan.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.