Selection of Adjuvants for Enhanced Vaccine Potency


The advent of mass vaccination has saved millions of human lives and revolutionized the quality of life. Vaccination is currently one of the most cost effective ways of managing healthcare costs in both emerging and developed countries. Despite the long vaccine history and success, design and development of efficacious and safe vaccines has been tradi-tionally semi-empirical. This is mainly due to our limited understanding of vaccination mechanism and its influencing factors. The most important factor is arguably the type and concentration of vaccine adjuvants. Until recently, however, only one type of adjuvant – aluminum salts, had been widely used within licensed human vaccines in the US, even though a variety of novel adjuvants have been evaluated in the past few decades. This review summarizes the key adju-vants that have been evaluated in recent years with an intention to facilitate more efficient development of vaccine products to combat human diseases.

Share and Cite:

Wang, W. and Singh, M. (2011) Selection of Adjuvants for Enhanced Vaccine Potency. World Journal of Vaccines, 1, 33-78. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2011.12007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] G. A. Poland and D. Morse, “Improving the Public Health: The U. S. Recommendation for Universal Influenza Immunization,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 16, 2010, pp. 2799-2800. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.002
[2] L. Danzig, “Reverse Vaccinology-in Search of a Genome- Derived Meningococcal Vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, Suppl 2, April 12, 2006, pp. S2-11-2.
[3] A. M. Harandi, D. Medaglini, and R. J. Shattock, “Vaccine Adjuvants: A Priority for Vaccine Research,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 12, 2010, pp. 2363-2366. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.084
[4] Y. Perrie, A. R. Mohammed, D. J. Kirby, S. E. McNeil, and V. W. Bramwell, “Vaccine Adjuvant Systems: Enhancing the Efficacy of Sub-Unit Protein Antigens,” Int J Pharm, Vol. 364, No. 2, December 8 2008, pp. 272-80. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.04.036
[5] D. T. O'Hagan and E. De Gregorio, “The Path to a Successful Vaccine Adjuvant-'The Long and Winding Road,” Drug Discov Today, Vol. 14, No. 11-12, June 2009, pp. 541-51.
[6] Y. van Kooyk, A. Engering, A. N. Lekkerkerker, I. S. Ludwig, and T. B. Geijtenbeek, “Pathogens Use Carbohydrates to Escape Immunity Induced by Dendritic Cells,” Curr Opin Immunol, Vol. 16, No. 4, August 2004, pp. 488-93. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2004.05.010
[7] J. H. Wilson-Welder, M. P. Torres, M. J. Kipper, S. K. Mallapragada, M. J. Wannemuehler, and B. Narasimhan, “Vaccine adjuvants: Current challenges and future approaches,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 14, August 2008,
[8] J. Rajcani, T. Mosko, and I. Rezuchova, “Current Developments in Viral DNA Vaccines: Shall They Solve the Unsolved?” Rev Med Virol, Vol. 15, No. 5, September- October 2005, pp. 303-25. doi:10.1002/rmv.467
[9] M. Majewska and M. Szczepanik, “The Role of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses and Their Function in Immune Response Regulation,” Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online), Vol. 60, 2006, pp. 52-63.
[10] A. Lahiri, P. Das, and D. Chakravortty, “Engagement of TLR signaling as adjuvant: Towards smarter vaccine and beyond,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 52, Dec 9 2008, pp. 6777-83. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.045
[11] S. Agrawal, A. Agrawal, B. Doughty, A. Gerwitz, J. Blenis, T. Van Dyke, and B. Pulendran, “Cutting edge: different Toll-like receptor agonists instruct dendritic cells to induce distinct Th responses via differential modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase- mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Fos,” J Immunol, Vol. 171, No. 10, Nov 15 2003, pp. 4984-9.
[12] Q.-e. Yang, “IgM, not IgG, a key for HIV vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1287-1288. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.030
[13] M. S. Sinyakov and R. R. Avtalion, “Vaccines and natural antibodies: A link to be considered,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 14, 2009, pp. 1985-1986. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.121
[14] D. C. Gondek, N. R. Roan, and M. N. Starnbach, “T cell responses in the absence of IFN-gamma exacerbate uterine infection with Chlamydia trachomatis,” J Immunol, Vol. 183, No. 2, Jul 15 2009, pp. 1313-9. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0900295
[15] H. L. Davis, “Novel Vaccines and Adjuvant Systems: The Utility of Animal Models for Predicting Immunogenicity in Humans,” Hum Vaccin, Vol. 4, No. 3, Nov 18 2007.
[16] C. L. Cooper, H. L. Davis, M. L. Morris, S. M. Efler, A. M. Krieg, Y. Li, C. Laframboise, M. J. Al Adhami, Y. Khaliq, I. Seguin, and D. W. Cameron, “Safety and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 injection as an adjuvant to Fluarix influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 23-24, Aug 13 2004, pp. 3136-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.058
[17] J. M. Taylor, M. E. Ziman, D. R. Canfield, M. Vajdy, and J. V. Solnick, “Effects of a Th1-versus a Th2-biased immune response in protection against Helicobacter pylori challenge in mice,” Microb Pathog, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan 2008, pp. 20-7. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2007.06.006
[18] J. Klingstrom, I. Maljkovic, B. Zuber, E. Rollman, A. Kjerrstrom, and A. Lundkvist, “Vaccination of C57/BL6 mice with Dobrava hantavirus nucleocapsid protein in Freund's adjuvant induced partial protection against challenge,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 29-30, Sep 28 2004, pp. 4029-34. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.045
[19] N. W. Baylor, W. Egan, and P. Richman, “Aluminum salts in vaccines-US perspective,” Vaccine, Vol. 20 Suppl 3, May 31 2002, pp. S18-23. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00166-4
[20] E. B. Lindblad, “Aluminium adjuvants - in retrospect and prospect,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 27-28, September 9 2004, pp. 3658-3668. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.032
[21] L. Franchi and G. Nunez, “The Nlrp3 inflammasome is critical for aluminium hydroxide-mediated IL-1beta secretion but dispensable for adjuvant activity,” Eur J Immunol, Vol. 38, No. 8, Aug 2008, pp. 2085-9. doi:10.1002/eji.200838549
[22] C. A. Shaw and M. S. Petrik, “Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, Vol. 103, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1555-1562. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.05.019
[23] M. Chang, Y. Shi, S. L. Nail, H. HogenEsch, S. B. Adams, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Degree of antigen adsorption in the vaccine or interstitial fluid and its effect on the antibody response in rabbits,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 20-22, Apr 6 2001, pp. 2884-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00559-4
[24] X. Wang, M. Bao, M. Wan, H. Wei, L. Wang, H. Yu, X. Zhang, and Y. Yu, “A CpG oligodeoxynucleotide acts as a potent adjuvant for inactivated rabies virus vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 15, Mar 28 2008, pp. 1893-901. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.043
[25] E. Tritto, F. Mosca, and E. De Gregorio, “Mechanism of action of licensed vaccine adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 25-26, May 26 2009, pp. 3331-4. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.084
[26] S. L. Hem and H. Hogenesch, “Relationship between physical and chemical properties of aluminum-containing adjuvants and immunopotentiation,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 6, No. 5, Oct 2007, pp. 685-98. doi:10.1586/14760584.6.5.685
[27] S. Iyer, H. HogenEsch, and S. L. Hem, “Relationship between the degree of antigen adsorption to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in interstitial fluid and antibody production,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 11-12, Mar 7 2003, pp. 1219-23. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00556-X
[28] G. L. Morefield, D. Jiang, I. Z. Romero-Mendez, R. L. Geahlen, H. Hogenesch, and S. L. Hem, “Effect of phosphorylation of ovalbumin on adsorption by aluminum- containing adjuvants and elution upon exposure to interstitial fluid,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 12, Feb 10 2005, pp. 1502-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.08.048
[29] A. Sokolovska, S. L. Hem, and H. HogenEsch, “Activation of dendritic cells and induction of CD4(+) T cell differentiation by aluminum-containing adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 23, Jun 6 2007, pp. 4575-85. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.03.045
[30] IDdb. com. Adjuvants and Adjuvanted Preventive and Therapeutic Vaccines for Infectious Disease Indications [Online].
[31] M. Kool, V. Petrilli, T. De Smedt, A. Rolaz, H. Hammad, M. van Nimwegen, I. M. Bergen, R. Castillo, B. N. Lambrecht, and J. Tschopp, “Cutting edge: alum adjuvant stimulates inflammatory dendritic cells through activation of the NALP3 inflammasome,” J Immunol, Vol. 181, No. 6, Sep 15 2008, pp. 3755-9.
[32] S. C. Eisenbarth, O. R. Colegio, W. O'Connor, F. S. Sutterwala, and R. A. Flavell, “Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants,” Nature, Vol. 453, No. 7198, Jun 19 2008, pp. 1122-6. doi:10.1038/nature06939
[33] H. Li, S. B. Willingham, J. P. Ting, and F. Re, “Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3,” J Immunol, Vol. 181, No. 1, Jul 1 2008, pp. 17-21.
[34] D. T. O'Hagan and R. Rappuoli, “Novel approaches to vaccine delivery,” Pharmaceutical Research. Vol., Vol. 21, No. 9, 2004, pp. 1519-1530. doi:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000041443.17935.33
[35] J. P. Scheerlinck, S. Gloster, A. Gamvrellis, P. L. Mottram, and M. Plebanski, “Systemic immune responses in sheep, induced by a novel nano-bead adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 8, Feb 20 2006, pp. 1124-31. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.009
[36] S. F. Little, B. E. Ivins, W. M. Webster, S. L. Norris, and G. P. Andrews, “Effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and formaldehyde in the formulation of rPA anthrax vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 15, Apr 12 2007, pp. 2771-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.12.043
[37] R. C. Brady, J. J. Treanor, R. L. Atmar, W. A. Keitel, R. Edelman, W. H. Chen, P. Winokur, R. Belshe, I. L. Graham, D. L. Noah, K. Guo, and H. Hill, “Safety and immunogenicity of a subvirion inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide among healthy elderly adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 37, Aug 13 2009, pp. 5091-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.057
[38] D. Ikeno, K. Kimachi, Y. Kudo, S. Goto, S. Itamura, T. Odagiri, M. Tashiro, and Y. Kino, “A prime-boost vaccination of mice with heterologous H5N1 strains,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 23, May 18 2009, pp. 3121-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.007
[39] C. Vessely, T. Estey, T. W. Randolph, I. Henderson, R. Nayar, and J. F. Carpenter, “Effects of solution conditions and surface chemistry on the adsorption of three recombinant botulinum neurotoxin antigens to aluminum salt adjuvants,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 96, No. 9, Sep 2007, pp. 2375-89. doi:10.1002/jps.20880
[40] L. Wolff, J. Flemming, R. Schmitz, K. Gr?ger, C. Goso, and C. Müller-Goymann, “Forces determining the adsorption of a monoclonal antibody onto an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant: Influence of interstitial fluid components,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1834-1840. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.037
[41] R. A. DePaz, I. Henderson, and S. J. Advant, “Formulation of botulinum neurotoxin heavy chain fragments for vaccine development: mechanisms of adsorption to an aluminum-containing adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 31, Jul 1 2005, pp. 4029-35. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.03.028
[42] S. Iyer, H. HogenEsch, and S. L. Hem, “Effect of the degree of phosphate substitution in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the adsorption of phosphorylated proteins,” Pharm Dev Technol, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2003, pp. 81-6. doi:10.1081/PDT-120017526
[43] K. Singh and S. Mohan, “Adsorption behavior of selected monosaccharides onto an alumina interface,” J Colloid Interface Sci, Vol. 270, No. 1, Feb 1 2004, pp. 21-8. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2003.05.002
[44] G. L. Morefield, H. HogenEsch, J. P. Robinson, and S. L. Hem, “Distribution of adsorbed antigen in mono-valent and combination vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 15-16, May 7 2004, pp. 1973-84. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.10.040
[45] S. Jendrek, S. F. Little, S. Hem, G. Mitra, and S. Giardina, “Evaluation of the compatibility of a second generation recombinant anthrax vaccine with aluminum-containing adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 21-22, Jun 20 2003, pp. 3011-8. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00109-9
[46] S. L. Hem, H. HogenEsch, C. R. Middaugh, and D. B. Volkin, “Preformulation studies-The next advance in aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 31, 2010, pp. 4868-4870. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.007
[47] S. Iyer, R. S. Robinett, H. HogenEsch, and S. L. Hem, “Mechanism of adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 11-12, Mar 29 2004, pp. 1475-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.10.023
[48] L. S. Jones, L. J. Peek, J. Power, A. Markham, B. Yazzie, and C. R. Middaugh, “Effects of adsorption to aluminum salt adjuvants on the structure and stability of model protein antigens,” J Biol Chem, Vol. 280, No. 14, Apr 8 2005, pp. 13406-14. doi:10.1074/jbc.M500687200
[49] Y. Shi, H. HogenEsch, F. E. Regnier, and S. L. Hem, “Detoxification of endotoxin by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 13-14, Feb 8 2001, pp. 1747-52. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00394-7
[50] K. P. Yau, D. G. Schulze, C. T. Johnston, and S. L. Hem, “Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant produced under constant reactant concentration,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 95, No. 8, Aug 2006, pp. 1822-33. doi:10.1002/jps.20692
[51] C. Vessely, T. Estey, T. W. Randolph, I. Henderson, J. Cooper, R. Nayar, L. J. Braun, and J. F. Carpenter, “Stability of a trivalent recombinant protein vaccine formulation against botulinum neurotoxin during storage in aqueous solution,” J Pharm Sci, Aug 4 2008.
[52] D. Jiang, C. T. Johnston, and S. L. Hem, “Using rate of acid neutralization to characterize aluminum phosphate adjuvant,” Pharm Dev Technol, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2003, pp. 349-56. doi:10.1081/PDT-120024688
[53] B. Hansen, M. Belfast, G. Soung, L. Song, P. M. Egan, R. Capen, H. Hogenesch, R. Mancinelli, and S. L. Hem, “Effect of the strength of adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the immune response,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 6, Feb 5 2009, pp. 888-92. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.078
[54] L. S. Burrell, C. T. Johnston, D. Schulze, J. Klein, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Aluminium phosphate adjuvants prepared by precipitation at constant pH. Part II: physicochemical properties,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 2-3, Sep 15 2000, pp. 282-7.
[55] J. V. Rinella, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Effect of pH on the Elution of Model Antigens from Aluminum- Containing Adjuvants,” J Colloid Interface Sci, Vol. 205, No. 1, Sep 1 1998, pp. 161-5. doi:10.1006/jcis.1998.5648
[56] I. Z. Romero Mendez, Y. Shi, H. HogenEsch, and S. L. Hem, “Potentiation of the immune response to non- adsorbed antigens by aluminum-containing adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jan 15 2007, pp. 825-33. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.09.039
[57] L. Lin, A. S. Ibrahim, V. Avanesian, J. E. Edwards, Jr., Y. Fu, B. Baquir, R. Taub, and B. Spellberg, “Considerable differences in vaccine immunogenicities and efficacies related to the diluent used for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant,” Clin Vaccine Immunol, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 2008, pp. 582-4. doi:10.1128/CVI.00427-07
[58] B. Hansen, A. Sokolovska, H. HogenEsch, and S. L. Hem, “Relationship between the strength of antigen adsorption to an aluminum-containing adjuvant and the immune response,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 36, Sep 4 2007, pp. 6618-24. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.06.049
[59] P. M. Egan, M. T. Belfast, J. A. Gimenez, R. D. Sitrin, and R. J. Mancinelli, “Relationship between tightness of binding and immunogenicity in an aluminum-containing adjuvant-adsorbed hepatitis B vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 24, May 21 2009, pp. 3175-80. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.054
[60] L. S. Burrell, E. B. Lindblad, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Stability of aluminium-containing adjuvants to autoclaving,” Vaccine, Vol. 17, No. 20-21, Jun 4 1999, pp. 2599-603. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00051-1
[61] A. L. Clausi, S. A. Merkley, J. F. Carpenter, and T. W. Randolph, “Inhibition of aggregation of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant during freezing and drying,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 97, No. 6, Jun 2008, pp. 2049-61. doi:10.1002/jps.21143
[62] M. I. Zapata, J. R. Feldkamp, G. E. Peck, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Mechanism of freeze-thaw instability of aluminum hydroxycarbonate and magnesium hydroxide gels,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 73, No. 1, Jan 1984, pp. 3-8. doi:10.1002/jps.2600730103
[63] D. Chen, A. Tyagi, J. Carpenter, S. Perkins, D. Sylvester, M. Guy, D. D. Kristensen, and L. J. Braun, “Characterization of the freeze sensitivity of a hepatitis B vaccine,” Hum Vaccin, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan 24 2009, pp. 26-32. doi:10.4161/hv.5.1.6494
[64] L. J. Braun, A. Tyagi, S. Perkins, J. Carpenter, D. Sylvester, M. Guy, D. Kristensen, and D. Chen, “Development of a freeze-stable formulation for vaccines containing aluminum salt adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1 2009, pp. 72-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.027
[65] A. L. Clausi, A. Morin, J. F. Carpenter, and T. W. Randolph, “Influence of protein conformation and adjuvant aggregation on the effectiveness of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in a model alkaline phosphatase vaccine,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 98, No. 1, Jan 2009, pp. 114-21. doi:10.1002/jps.21433
[66] V. A. Conforti, D. M. de Avila, N. S. Cummings, K. J. Wells, H. Ulker, and J. J. Reeves, “The effectiveness of a CpG motif-based adjuvant (CpG ODN 2006) for LHRH immunization,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 35, Aug 29 2007, pp. 6537-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.056
[67] D. Chen, S. Kapre, A. Goel, K. Suresh, S. Beri, J. Hickling, J. Jensen, M. Lal, J. M. Preaud, M. LaForce, and D. Kristensen, “Thermostable formulations of a hepatitis B vaccine and a meningitis A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine produced by a spray drying method,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 31, 2010, pp. 5093-5099. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.112
[68] C. J. Hutcheon, J. O. Becker, B. A. Russell, P. A. Bariola, G. J. Peterson, and S. D. Stroop, “Physiochemical and functional characterization of antigen proteins eluted from aluminum hydroxide adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 49-50, Nov 30 2006, pp. 7214-25. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.06.043
[69] A. Wittayanukulluk, D. Jiang, F. E. Regnier, and S. L. Hem, “Effect of microenvironment pH of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the chemical stability of adsorbed antigen,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 9-10, Mar 12 2004, pp. 1172-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.09.037
[70] L. J. Braun, J. Jezek, S. Peterson, A. Tyagi, S. Perkins, D. Sylvester, M. Guy, M. Lal, S. Priddy, H. Plzak, D. Kristensen, and D. Chen, “Characterization of a thermostable hepatitis B vaccine formulation,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 34, Jul 23 2009, pp. 4609-14. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.069
[71] J. M. Langley, V. Sales, A. McGeer, R. Guasparini, G. Predy, W. Meekison, M. Li, J. Capellan, and E. Wang, “A dose-ranging study of a subunit Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtype A vaccine with and without aluminum phosphate adjuvantation in adults > or =65 years of age,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 42, Sep 25 2009, pp. 5913-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.038
[72] M. Kwissa, S. P. Kasturi, and B. Pulendran, “The science of adjuvants,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 6, No. 5, Oct 2007, pp. 673-84. doi:10.1586/14760584.6.5.673
[73] M. Singh and D. T. O'Hagan, “Recent advances in vaccine adjuvants,” Pharmaceutical Research. Vol., Vol. 19, No. 6, 2002, pp. 715-728. doi:10.1023/A:1016104910582
[74] J. Vollmer and A. M. Krieg, “Immunotherapeutic applications of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonists,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 195-204. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.008
[75] G. Mutwiri, S. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, and L. A. Babiuk, “Approaches to enhancing immune responses stimulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 226-32. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.004
[76] P. Malyala, D. T. O'Hagan, and M. Singh, “Enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of CpG oligonucleotides using biodegradable microparticles,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 218-25. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.009
[77] F. A. Sharp, D. Ruane, B. Claass, E. Creagh, J. Harris, P. Malyala, M. Singh, D. T. O'Hagan, V. Petrilli, J. Tschopp, L. A. O'Neill, and E. C. Lavelle, “Uptake of particulate vaccine adjuvants by dendritic cells activates the NALP3 inflammasome,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Vol. 106, No. 3, Jan 20 2009, pp. 870-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804897106
[78] D. M. Lubaroff and D. Karan, “CpG oligonucleotide as an adjuvant for the treatment of prostate cancer,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 268-74. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.005
[79] Y. Krishnamachari and A. K. Salem, “Innovative strategies for co-delivering antigens and CpG oligonucleotides,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 205-17. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.013
[80] K. D. Wilson, S. D. de Jong, and Y. K. Tam, “Lipid- based delivery of CpG oligonucleotides enhances immunotherapeutic efficacy,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 233-42. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.014
[81] H. Wagner, “The immunogenicity of CpG-antigen conjugates,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 61, No. 3, Mar 28 2009, pp. 243-7. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2008.12.010
[82] J. Vollmer, R. D. Weeratna, M. Jurk, U. Samulowitz, M. J. McCluskie, P. Payette, H. L. Davis, C. Schetter, and A. M. Krieg, “Oligodeoxynucleotides lacking CpG dinucleotides mediate Toll-like receptor 9 dependent T helper type 2 biased immune stimulation,” Immunology, Vol. 113, No. 2, Oct 2004, pp. 212-23. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01962.x
[83] A. Conforti, B. Cipriani, D. Peruzzi, S. Dharmapuri, E. R. Kandimalla, S. Agrawal, F. Mori, G. Ciliberto, N. La Monica, and L. Aurisicchio, “A TLR9 agonist enhances therapeutic effects of telomerase genetic vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 20, 2010, pp. 3522-3530. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.020
[84] M. W. Hornef, B. Henriques-Normark, and S. Normark, “The function and biological role of toll-like receptors in infectious diseases: an update,” Curr Opin Infect Dis, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jun 2008, pp. 304-12. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282f88ba3
[85] D. Tudor, C. Dubuquoy, V. Gaboriau, F. Lefevre, B. Charley, and S. Riffault, “TLR9 pathway is involved in adjuvant effects of plasmid DNA-based vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 10, Jan 26 2005, pp. 1258-64. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.09.001
[86] D. M. Klinman, S. Klaschik, K. Tomaru, H. Shirota, D. Tross, and H. Ikeuchi, “Immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides: Effect on gene expression and utility as vaccine adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1919-1923. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.094
[87] J. Kovacs-Nolan, J. W. Mapletoft, L. Latimer, L. A. Babiuk, and S. v. D. L.-v. d. Hurk, “CpG oligonucleotide, host defense peptide and polyphosphazene act synergistically, inducing long-lasting, balanced immune responses in cattle,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 14, 2009, pp. 2048-2054. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.117
[88] J. Kovacs-Nolan, L. Latimer, A. Landi, H. Jenssen, R. E. W. Hancock, L. A. Babiuk, and S. van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, “The novel adjuvant combination of CpG ODN, indolicidin and polyphosphazene induces potent antibody -and cell-mediated immune responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 14, 2009, pp. 2055-2064. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.118
[89] M. Gautam, S. Gairola, S. Jadhav, and B. Patwardhan, “Ethnopharmacology in vaccine adjuvant discovery,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 41, Sep 26 2008, pp. 5239-40. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.045
[90] J. Vollmer, R. Weeratna, P. Payette, M. Jurk, C. Schetter, M. Laucht, T. Wader, S. Tluk, M. Liu, H. L. Davis, and A. M. Krieg, “Characterization of three CpG oligod- eoxynucleotide classes with distinct immunostimulatory activities,” Eur J Immunol, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 2004, pp. 251-62. doi:10.1002/eji.200324032
[91] C. L. Cooper, N. K. Ahluwalia, S. M. Efler, J. Vollmer, A. M. Krieg, and H. L. Davis, “Immunostimulatory effects of three classes of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on PBMC from HCV chronic carriers,” J Immune Based Ther Vaccines, Vol. 6, 2008, p. 3. doi:10.1186/1476-8518-6-3
[92] D. A. Hokey, A. T. Larregina, G. Erdos, S. C. Watkins, and L. D. Falo, Jr., “Tumor cell loaded type-1 polarized dendritic cells induce Th1-mediated tumor immunity,” Cancer Res, Vol. 65, No. 21, Nov 1 2005, pp. 10059-67. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1692
[93] R. S. Corral and P. B. Petray, “CpG DNA as a Th1- promoting adjuvant in immunization against Trypanosoma cruzi,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 2-3, Sep 15 2000, pp. 234-42. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00172-9
[94] F. M. Frank, S. I. Cazorla, M. J. Sartori, and R. S. Corral, “Elicitation of specific, Th1-biased immune response precludes skeletal muscle damage in cruzipain-vaccinated mice,” Exp Mol Pathol, Vol. 84, No. 1, Feb 2008, pp. 64-70. doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2007.10.004
[95] D. Pokorna, I. Polakova, M. Kindlova, M. Duskova, V. Ludvikova, P. Gabriel, L. Kutinova, M. Muller, and M. Smahel, “Vaccination with human papillomavirus type 16-derived peptides using a tattoo device,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 27, Jun 2 2009, pp. 3519-29. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.073
[96] C. Yang, H. Shi, J. Zhou, Y. Liang, and H. Xu, “CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are a potent adjuvant for an inactivated polio vaccine produced from Sabin strains of poliovirus,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 47, 2009, pp. 6558-6563. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.047
[97] J. B. Angel, C. L. Cooper, J. Clinch, C. D. Young, A. Chenier, K. G. Parato, M. Lautru, H. Davis, and D. W. Cameron, “CpG increases vaccine antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity when administered with hepatitis B vaccine in HIV infection,” J Immune Based Ther Vaccines, Vol. 6, 2008, p. 4. doi:10.1186/1476-8518-6-4
[98] O. S. Sogaard, N. Lohse, Z. B. Harboe, R. Offersen, A. R. Bukh, H. L. Davis, H. C. Schonheyder, and L. Ostergaard, “Improving the immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected adults with a toll-like receptor 9 agonist adjuvant: a randomized, controlled trial,” Clin Infect Dis, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jul 1 2010, pp. 42-50. doi:10.1086/653112
[99] P. Silvera, J. R. Savary, V. Livingston, J. White, K. H. Manson, M. H. Wyand, P. L. Salk, R. B. Moss, and M. G. Lewis, “Vaccination with gp120-depleted HIV-1 plus immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in incomplete Freund's adjuvant stimulates cellular and humoral immunity in rhesus macaques,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec 21 2004, pp. 827-39. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.06.045
[100] B. D. Silva, E. B. da Silva, I. P. do Nascimento, M. C. Dos Reis, A. Kipnis, and A. P. Junqueira-Kipnis, “MPT-51/CpG DNA vaccine protects mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 33, Jul 16 2009, pp. 4402-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.049
[101] Y. Kojima, K. Q. Xin, T. Ooki, K. Hamajima, T. Oikawa, K. Shinoda, T. Ozaki, Y. Hoshino, N. Jounai, M. Nakazawa, D. Klinman, and K. Okuda, “Adjuvant effect of multi-CpG motifs on an HIV-1 DNA vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 23-24, Jul 26 2002, pp. 2857-65. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00238-4
[102] S. A. Halperin, G. Van Nest, B. Smith, S. Abtahi, H. Whiley, and J. J. Eiden, “A phase I study of the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen co-administered with an immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligonucleotide adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 19-20, Jun 2 2003, pp. 2461-7. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00045-8
[103] S. S. Martin, R. R. Bakken, C. M. Lind, P. Garcia, E. Jenkins, P. J. Glass, M. D. Parker, M. K. Hart, and D. L. Fine, “Comparison of the immunological responses and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 vaccine formulations against subcutaneous and aerosol challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1031-1040. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.126
[104] M. Gu, P. M. Hine, W. James Jackson, L. Giri, and G. S. Nabors, “Increased potency of BioThrax anthrax vaccine with the addition of the C-class CpG oligonucleotide adjuvant CPG 10109,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jan 5 2007, pp. 526-34. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.07.056
[105] P. J. Payette, X. Ma, R. D. Weeratna, M. J. McCluskie, M. Shapiro, R. E. Engle, H. L. Davis, and R. H. Purcell, “Testing of CpG-optimized protein and DNA vaccines against the hepatitis B virus in chimpanzees for immunogenicity and protection from challenge,” Intervirology, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2006, pp. 144-51. doi:10.1159/000089375
[106] I. Sagara, R. D. Ellis, A. Dicko, M. B. Niambele, B. Kamate, O. Guindo, M. S. Sissoko, M. P. Fay, M. A. Guindo, O. Kante, R. Saye, K. Miura, C. Long, G. E. D. Mullen, M. Pierce, L. B. Martin, K. Rausch, A. Dolo, D. A. Diallo, L. H. Miller, and O. K. Doumbo, “A randomized and controlled Phase 1 study of the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/ Alhydrogel?+ CPG 7909 vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in semi-immune Malian adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 52, 2009, pp. 7292-7298. doi:10.1016/
[107] F. Elias, J. Flo, J. M. Rodriguez, A. De Nichilo, R. A. Lopez, J. Zorzopulos, C. Nagle, M. Lahoz, and A. Montaner, “PyNTTTTGT prototype oligonucleotide IMT504 is a potent adjuvant for the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine that enhances the Th1 response,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 27, May 20 2005, pp. 3597-603. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.12.030
[108] J. A. Aebig, G. E. Mullen, G. Dobrescu, K. Rausch, L. Lambert, O. Ajose-Popoola, C. A. Long, A. Saul, and A. P. Miles, “Formulation of vaccines containing CpG oligonucleotides and alum,” J Immunol Methods, Vol. 323, No. 2, Jun 30 2007, pp. 139-46. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2007.04.003
[109] G. E. Mullen, J. A. Aebig, G. Dobrescu, K. Rausch, L. Lambert, C. A. Long, A. P. Miles, and A. Saul, “Enhanced antibody production in mice to the malaria antigen AMA1 by CPG 7909 requires physical association of CpG and antigen,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 29, Jul 20 2007, pp. 5343-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.007
[110] R. D. Ellis, G. E. Mullen, M. Pierce, L. B. Martin, K. Miura, M. P. Fay, C. A. Long, D. Shaffer, A. Saul, L. H. Miller, and A. P. Durbin, “A Phase 1 study of the blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel with CPG 7909, using two different formulations and dosing intervals,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 31, Jun 24 2009, pp. 4104-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.077
[111] A. M. Harandi and J. Holmgren, “CpG oligod- eoxynucleotides and mobilization of innate mucosal immunity: tasks and tactics,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-48-9.
[112] S. Tengvall, A. Lundqvist, R. J. Eisenberg, G. H. Cohen, and A. M. Harandi, “Mucosal administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide elicits strong CC and CXC chemokine responses in the vagina and serves as a potent Th1-tilting adjuvant for recombinant gD2 protein vaccination against genital herpes,” J Virol, Vol. 80, No. 11, Jun 2006, pp. 5283-91. doi:10.1128/JVI.02013-05
[113] L. Zhang, X. Tian, and F. Zhou, “Intranasal administration of CpG oligonucleotides induces mucosal and systemic Type 1 immune responses and adjuvant activity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome killed virus vaccine in piglets in vivo,” Int Immunopharmacol, Vol. 7, No. 13, Dec 15 2007, pp. 1732-40. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2007.09.012
[114] S. Zimmermann, A. Dalpke, and K. Heeg, “CpG oligonucleotides as adjuvant in therapeutic vaccines against parasitic infections,” Int J Med Microbiol, Vol. 298, No. 1-2, Jan 2008, pp. 39-44. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.07.011
[115] M. J. McCluskie and H. L. Davis, “Oral, intrarectal and intranasal immunizations using CpG and non-CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 4-5, Oct 15 2000, pp. 413-22. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00208-5
[116] D. Wang, E. R. Kandimalla, D. Yu, J. X. Tang, and S. Agrawal, “Oral administration of second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides induces mucosal Th1 immune responses and adjuvant activity,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 20, Apr 8 2005, pp. 2614-22. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.028
[117] D. T. O'Hagan, M. Singh, J. Kazzaz, M. Ugozzoli, M. Briones, J. Donnelly, and G. Ott, “Synergistic adjuvant activity of immunostimulatory DNA and oil/water emulsions for immunization with HIV p55 gag antigen,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 27-28, Sep 10 2002, pp. 3389-98. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00272-4
[118] Z. Cui and F. Qiu, “Synthetic double-stranded RNA poly (I:C) as a potent peptide vaccine adjuvant: therapeutic activity against human cervical cancer in a rodent model,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 55, No. 10, Oct 2006, pp. 1267-79. doi:10.1007/s00262-005-0114-6
[119] M. Ringvall, E. J. M. Huijbers, P. Ahooghalandari, L. Alekseeva, T. Andronova, A.-K. Olsson, and L. Hellman, “Identification of potent biodegradable adjuvants that efficiently break self-tolerance--A key issue in the development of therapeutic vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009, pp. 48-52. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.122
[120] T. R. Johnson, S. Rao, R. A. Seder, M. Chen, and B. S. Graham, “TLR9 agonist, but not TLR7/8, functions as an adjuvant to diminish FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced disease, while either agonist used as therapy during primary RSV infection increases disease severity,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 23, May 18 2009, pp. 3045-52. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.026
[121] M. Chennaoui, C. Drogou, A. F. Carpentier, C.-Y. Guezennec, and D. Gomez-Merino, “Cytokine content in lymphoid and white adipose tissues after repeated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide administration in trained rats,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1814-1818. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.003
[122] B. Traore, Y. Koné, S. Doumbo, D. Doumtabé, A. Traoré, P. D. Crompton, M. Mircetic, C.-Y. Huang, K. Kayentao, A. Dicko, I. Sagara, R. D. Ellis, K. Miura, A. Guindo, L. H. Miller, O. K. Doumbo, and S. K. Pierce, “The TLR9 agonist CpG fails to enhance the acquisition of Plasmodium falciparum-specific memory B cells in semi-immune adults in Mali,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 52, 2009, pp. 7299-7303. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.023
[123] J. Aucouturier, S. Ascarateil, and L. Dupuis, “The use of oil adjuvants in therapeutic vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-44-5.
[124] J. Oscherwitz, F. C. Hankenson, F. Yu, and K. B. Cease, “Low-dose intraperitoneal Freund's adjuvant: toxicity and immunogenicity in mice using an immunogen targeting amyloid-beta peptide,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 15, Apr 5 2006, pp. 3018-25. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.046
[125] S. A. Rosenberg, J. C. Yang, U. S. Kammula, M. S. Hughes, N. P. Restifo, S. L. Schwarz, K. E. Morton, C. M. Laurencot, and R. M. Sherry, “Different adjuvanticity of incomplete freund's adjuvant derived from beef or vegetable components in melanoma patients immunized with a peptide vaccine,” J Immunother, Vol. 33, No. 6, Jul-Aug 2010, pp. 626-9. doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181dac9de
[126] J. A. Langermans, A. Schmidt, R. A. Vervenne, A. J. Birkett, J. M. Calvo-Calle, M. Hensmann, G. B. Thornton, F. Dubovsky, H. Weiler, E. Nardin, and A. W. Thomas, “Effect of adjuvant on reactogenicity and long-term immunogenicity of the malaria Vaccine ICC-1132 in macaques,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 41, Sep 30 2005, pp. 4935-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.05.036
[127] A. Saul, G. Lawrence, A. Allworth, S. Elliott, K. Anderson, C. Rzepczyk, L. B. Martin, D. Taylor, D. P. Eisen, D. O. Irving, D. Pye, P. E. Crewther, A. N. Hodder, V. J. Murphy, and R. F. Anders, “A human phase 1 vaccine clinical trial of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine candidate apical membrane antigen 1 in Montanide ISA720 adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 23, Apr 27 2005, pp. 3076-83. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.09.040
[128] D. O'Hagan, “The role of adjuvants in vaccine development: the example of MF59,” in Novel Vaccines: Adjuvants and Delivery Systems Providence, RI, USA, 2009.
[129] M. Dupuis, D. M. McDonald, and G. Ott, “Distribution of adjuvant MF59 and antigen gD2 after intramuscular injection in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 5-6, Oct 14 1999, pp. 434-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00263-7
[130] C. B. Fox, R. C. Anderson, T. S. Dutill, Y. Goto, S. G. Reed, and T. S. Vedvick, “Monitoring the effects of component structure and source on formulation stability and adjuvant activity of oil-in-water emulsions,” Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, Vol. 65, No. 1, Aug 1 2008, pp. 98-105. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.03.003
[131] D. T. O'Hagan, “MF59 is a safe and potent vaccine adjuvant that enhances protection against influenza virus infection,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 6, No. 5, Oct 2007, pp. 699-710. doi:10.1586/14760584.6.5.699
[132] V. Schultze, V. D'Agosto, A. Wack, D. Novicki, J. Zorn, and R. Hennig, “Safety of MF59 adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 26, Jun 19 2008, pp. 3209-22. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.093
[133] S. E. Frey, M. Houghton, S. Coates, S. Abrignani, D. Chien, D. Rosa, P. Pileri, R. Ray, A. M. Di Bisceglie, P. Rinella, H. Hill, M. C. Wolff, V. Schultze, J. H. Han, B. Scharschmidt, and R. B. Belshe, “Safety and immunogenicity of HCV E1E2 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 administered to healthy adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 38, 2010, pp. 6367-6373. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.084
[134] T. Vesikari, M. Pellegrini, A. Karvonen, N. Groth, A. Borkowski, T. O'Hagan D, and A. Podda, “Enhanced Immunogenicity of Seasonal Influenza Vaccines in Young Children Using MF59 Adjuvant,” Pediatr Infect Dis J, Vol. 28, No. 7, Jul 2009, pp. 563-571. doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e31819d6394
[135] T. Vesikari, N. Groth, A. Karvonen, A. Borkowski, and M. Pellegrini, “MF59?-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (FLUAD?) in children: Safety and immunogenicity following a second year seasonal vaccination,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 45, 2009, pp. 6291-6295. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.004
[136] W. Keitel, N. Groth, M. Lattanzi, M. Praus, A. K. Hilbert, A. Borkowski, and T. F. Tsai, “Dose ranging of adjuvant and antigen in a cell culture H5N1 influenza vaccine: Safety and immunogenicity of a phase 1/2 clinical trial,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2010, pp. 840-848. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.019
[137] T. C. Heineman, M. L. Clements-Mann, G. A. Poland, R. M. Jacobson, A. E. Izu, D. Sakamoto, J. Eiden, G. A. Van Nest, and H. H. Hsu, “A randomized, controlled study in adults of the immunogenicity of a novel hepatitis B vaccine containing MF59 adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 17, No. 22, Jul 16 1999, pp. 2769-78. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00088-2
[138] H. El Sahly, “MF59™ as a vaccine adjuvant: a review of safety and immunogenicity,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 9, No. 10, Oct 2010, pp. 1135-41. doi:10.1586/erv.10.111
[139] G. Del Giudice, E. Fragapane, R. Bugarini, M. Hora, T. Henriksson, E. Palla, D. O'Hagan, J. Donnelly, R. Rappuoli, and A. Podda, “Vaccines with the MF59 adjuvant do not stimulate antibody responses against squalene,” Clin Vaccine Immunol, Vol. 13, No. 9, Sep 2006, pp. 1010-3. doi:10.1128/CVI.00191-06
[140] A. Arguedas, C. Soley, A. Abdelnour, V. Sales, K. Lindert, G. D. Cioppa, and R. Clemens, “Assessment of the safety, tolerability and kinetics of the immune response to A/H1N1v vaccine formulations with and without adjuvant in healthy pediatric subjects from 3 through 17 years of age,” Hum Vaccin, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan 1 2011. doi:10.4161/hv.7.1.13411
[141] S. Black, G. Della Cioppa, A. Malfroot, P. Nacci, U. Nicolay, M. Pellegrini, E. Sokal, and A. Vertruyen, “Safety of MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adolescents: an integrated analysis,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 45, Oct 21 2010, pp. 7331-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.075
[142] S. L. Baldwin, C. B. Fox, M. A. Pallansch, R. N. Coler, S. G. Reed, and M. Friede, “Increased potency of an inactivated trivalent polio vaccine with oil-in-water emulsions,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2011, pp. 644-649. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.043
[143] J. Suli, Z. Benisek, D. Elias, S. Svrcek, A. Ondrejkova, R. Ondrejka, and V. Bajova, “Experimental squalene adjuvant. I. Preparation and testing of its effectiveness,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 25-26, Sep 3 2004, pp. 3464-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.02.023
[144] R. Bodewes, M. M. Geelhoed-Mieras, J. G. M. Heldens, J. Glover, B. N. Lambrecht, R. A. M. Fouchier, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, and G. F. Rimmelzwaan, “The novel adjuvant CoVaccineHT(TM) increases the immunogenicity of cell-culture derived influenza A/H5N1 vaccine and induces the maturation of murine and human dendritic cells in vitro,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 49, 2009, pp. 6833- 6839. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.015
[145] C. Caillet, F. Piras, M.-C. Bernard, A. de Montfort, F. Boudet, F. R. Vogel, A. Hoffenbach, C. Moste, and I. Kusters, “AF03-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines induce strong antibody responses in seasonal influenza vaccine-primed and unprimed mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 18, 2010, pp. 3076-3079. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.050
[147] N. J. Carter and G. L. Plosker, “Prepandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 (split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted) [Prepandrix]: a review of its use as an active immunization against influenza A subtype H5N1 virus,” BioDrugs, Vol. 22, No. 5, 2008, pp. 279-92. doi:10.2165/00063030-200822050-00001
[148] O. Berger, “Novel approaches for vaccine adjuvants,” in Novel Vaccines: Adjuvants and Delivery Systems Providence, RI, USA, 2009.
[149] D. W.-S. Chu, S.-J. Hwang, F. S. Lim, H. M. L. Oh, P. Thongcharoen, P.-C. Yang, H. L. Bock, M. Dramé, P. Gillard, Y. Hutagalung, H. Tang, Y. L. Teoh, and R. W. Ballou, “Immunogenicity and tolerability of an AS03A- adjuvanted prepandemic influenza vaccine: A phase III study in a large population of Asian adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 52, 2009, pp. 7428-7435. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.102
[150] I. Leroux-Roels, M. Van der Wielen, F. Kafeja, C. Vandermeulen, R. Lazarus, M. D. Snape, T. John, C. Carre, N. Nougarede, S. Pepin, G. Leroux-Roels, K. Hoppenbrouwers, A. J. Pollard, and P. Van Damme, “Humoral and cellular immune responses to split-virion H5N1 influenza vaccine in young and elderly adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 49, Nov 16 2009, pp. 6918-25. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.110
[151] F. Roman, T. Vaman, B. Gerlach, A. Markendorf, P. Gillard, and J.-M. Devaster, “Immunogenicity and safety in adults of one dose of influenza A H1N1v 2009 vaccine formulated with and without AS03A-adjuvant: Preliminary report of an observer-blind, randomised trial,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1740-1745. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.014
[152] A. S. Madhun, P. E. Akselsen, H. Sjursen, G. Pedersen, S. Svindland, J. K. N?stbakken, M. Nilsen, K. Mohn, ?. Jul-Larsen, I. Smith, D. Major, J. Wood, and R. J. Cox, “An adjuvanted pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine provides early and long term protection in health care workers,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2011, pp. 266-273. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.038
[153] D. Engelhard, Z. Zakay-Rones, M. Y. Shapira, I. Resnick, D. Averbuch, S. Grisariu, L. Dray, E. Djian, N. Strauss- Liviatan, I. Grotto, D. G. Wolf, and R. Or, “The humoral immune response of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients to AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like virus vaccine during the 2009 pandemic,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1777-1782. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.113
[154] A. Carmona, F. Ome?aca, J. C. Tejedor, J. M. Merino, T. Vaman, I. Dieussaert, P. Gillard, and J. Arístegui, “Immunogenicity and safety of AS03-adjuvanted 2009 influenza A H1N1 vaccine in children 6-35 months,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 36, 2010, pp. 5837-5844. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.065
[155] E. Javelle, B. Soulier, C. Brosset, S. Lorcy, and F. Simon, “Delayed focal lipoatrophy after AS03-adjuvanted influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1123-1125. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.018
[156] M. J. Pearse and D. Drane, “ISCOMATRIX adjuvant: a potent inducer of humoral and cellular immune responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 19, Jun 23 2004, pp. 2391-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.031
[157] M. J. Pearse and D. Drane, “ISCOMATRIX adjuvant for antigen delivery,” Adv Drug Deliv Rev, Vol. 57, No. 3, Jan 10 2005, pp. 465-74. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2004.09.006
[158] H. X. Sun, Y. Xie, and Y. P. Ye, “ISCOMs and ISCOMATRIX,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 33, Jul 16 2009, pp. 4388-401. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.032
[159] E. Furrie, R. E. Smith, M. W. Turner, S. Strobel, and A. M. Mowat, “Induction of local innate immune responses and modulation of antigen uptake as mechanisms underlying the mucosal adjuvant properties of immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMS),” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 17-18, May 22 2002, pp. 2254-62. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00106-8
[160] J. Malliaros, C. Quinn, F. H. Arnold, M. J. Pearse, D. P. Drane, T. J. Stewart, and R. I. Macfarlan, “Association of antigens to ISCOMATRIX adjuvant using metal chelation leads to improved CTL responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 29-30, Sep 28 2004, pp. 3968-75. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.054
[161] D. E. Clements, B.-A. G. Coller, M. M. Lieberman, S. Ogata, G. Wang, K. E. Harada, J. R. Putnak, J. M. Ivy, M. McDonell, G. S. Bignami, I. D. Peters, J. Leung, C. Weeks-Levy, E. T. Nakano, and T. Humphreys, “Development of a recombinant tetravalent dengue virus vaccine: Immunogenicity and efficacy studies in mice and monkeys,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 15, 2010, pp. 2705-2715. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.022
[162] J. Boyle, D. Eastman, C. Millar, S. Camuglia, J. Cox, M. Pearse, J. Good, and D. Drane, “The utility of ISCOMATRIX adjuvant for dose reduction of antigen for vaccines requiring antibody responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 14, Mar 30 2007, pp. 2541-4. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.12.018
[163] I. H. Frazer, M. Quinn, J. L. Nicklin, J. Tan, L. C. Perrin, P. Ng, V. M. O'Connor, O. White, N. Wendt, J. Martin, J. M. Crowley, S. J. Edwards, A. W. McKenzie, S. V. Mitchell, D. W. Maher, M. J. Pearse, and R. L. Basser, “Phase 1 study of HPV16-specific immunotherapy with E6E7 fusion protein and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 2, Nov 25 2004, pp. 172-81. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.05.013
[164] A. S. Madhun, L. R. Haaheim, M. V. Nilsen, and R. J. Cox, “Intramuscular Matrix-M-adjuvanted virosomal H5N1 vaccine induces high frequencies of multifunctional Th1 CD4+cells and strong antibody responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 52, 2009, pp. 7367-7376. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.044
[165] M. T. Sanders, G. Deliyannis, M. J. Pearse, M. K. McNamara, and L. E. Brown, “Single dose intranasal immunization with ISCOMATRIX vaccines to elicit antibody-mediated clearance of influenza virus requires delivery to the lower respiratory tract,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 18, Apr 21 2009, pp. 2475-82. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.054
[166] A. Vujanic, J. L. K. Wee, K. J. Snibson, S. Edwards, M. Pearse, C. Quinn, M. Moloney, S. Taylor, J.-P. Y. Scheerlinck, and P. Sutton, “Combined mucosal and systemic immunity following pulmonary delivery of ISCOMATRIX(TM) adjuvanted recombinant antigens,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 14, 2010, pp. 2593-2597. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.018
[167] J. L. Wee, J. P. Scheerlinck, K. J. Snibson, S. Edwards, M. Pearse, C. Quinn, and P. Sutton, “Pulmonary delivery of ISCOMATRIX influenza vaccine induces both systemic and mucosal immunity with antigen dose sparing,” Mucosal Immunol, Vol. 1, No. 6, Nov 2008, pp. 489-96. doi:10.1038/mi.2008.59
[168] W. Yan, W. Chen, and L. Huang, “Mechanism of adjuvant activity of cationic liposome: phosphorylation of a MAP kinase, ERK and induction of chemokines,” Mol Immunol, Vol. 44, No. 15, Jul 2007, pp. 3672-81. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.04.009
[169] D. Christensen, C. Foged, I. Rosenkrands, C. V. Lundberg, P. Andersen, E. M. Agger, and H. M. Nielsen, “CAF01 liposomes as a mucosal vaccine adjuvant: In vitro and in vivo investigations,” Int J Pharm, Vol. 390, No. 1, May 5 2010, pp. 19-24. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.10.043
[170] V. Dwivedi, A. Vasco, S. Vedi, A. Dangi, K. Arif, S. M. Bhattacharya, and M. Owais, “Adjuvanticity and protective immunity of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis blood-stage soluble antigens encapsulated in fusogenic liposome,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jan 14 2009, pp. 473-82. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.054
[171] L. Calderon, E. Facenda, L. Machado, K. Uyema, D. Rodriguez, E. Gomez, Y. Martinez, B. Gonzalez, V. Bourg, C. Alvarez, A. Otero, M. Russo, A. Labrada, and M. E. Lanio, “Modulation of the specific allergic response by mite allergens encapsulated into liposomes,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-38-9.
[172] C. J. Pachuk, D. E. McCallus, D. B. Weiner, and C. Satishchandran, “DNA vaccines--challenges in delivery,” Curr Opin Mol Ther, Vol. 2, No. 2, Apr 2000, pp. 188-98.
[173] K. S. Korsholm, E. M. Agger, C. Foged, D. Christensen, J. Dietrich, C. S. Andersen, C. Geisler, and P. Andersen, “The adjuvant mechanism of ationic imethyldioctadecylammonium liposomes,” Immunology, Vol. 121, No. 2, Jun 2007, pp. 216-26. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02560.x
[174] N. Lincopan, N. M. Espíndola, A. J. Vaz, M. H. B. d. Costa, E. Faquim-Mauro, and A. M. Carmona-Ribeiro, “Novel immunoadjuvants based on cationic lipid: Preparation, characterization and activity in vivo,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 42, 2009, pp. 5760-5771. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.066
[175] P. Pushko, T. M. Tumpey, N. Van Hoeven, J. A. Belser, R. Robinson, M. Nathan, G. Smith, D. C. Wright, and R. A. Bright, “Evaluation of influenza virus-like particles and Novasome adjuvant as candidate vaccine for avian influenza,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 21, May 22 2007, pp. 4283-90. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.059
[176] D. Christensen, C. Foged, I. Rosenkrands, H. M. Nielsen, P. Andersen, and E. M. Agger, “Trehalose preserves DDA/TDB liposomes and their adjuvant effect during freeze-drying,” Biochim Biophys Acta, Vol. 1768, No. 9, Sep 2007, pp. 2120-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2007.05.009
[177] O. Even-Or, S. Samira, E. Rochlin, S. Balasingam, A. J. Mann, R. Lambkin-Williams, J. Spira, I. Goldwaser, R. Ellis, and Y. Barenholz, “Immunogenicity, protective efficacy and mechanism of novel CCS adjuvanted influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 39, 2010, pp. 6527-6541. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.011
[178] R. Ravindran, S. Bhowmick, A. Das, and N. Ali, “Comparison of BCG, MPL and cationic liposome adjuvant systems in leishmanial antigen vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis,” BMC Microbiol, Vol. 10, 2010, p. 181.
[179] M. Karkada, G. M. Weir, T. Quinton, A. Fuentes-Ortega, and M. Mansour, “A liposome-based platform, VacciMax?, and its modified water-free platform DepoVax(TM) enhance efficacy of in vivo nucleic acid delivery,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 38, 2010, pp. 6176-6182. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.025
[180] M. E. Lanio, M. C. Luzardo, C. Alvarez, Y. Martinez, L. Calderon, M. E. Alonso, B. Zadi, G. Gregoriadis, D. Q. Craig, and A. Disalvo, “Humoral immune response against epidermal growth factor encapsulated in dehydration rehydration vesicles of different phospholipid composition,” J Liposome Res, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-19. doi:10.1080/08982100801893887
[181] J. Hartikka, V. Bozoukova, C. K. Yang, M. Ye, D. Rusalov, M. Shlapobersky, A. Vilalta, Q. Wei, A. Rolland, and L. R. Smith, “Vaxfectin?, a cationic lipid- ased adjuvant for protein-based influenza vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 46, 2009, pp. 6399-6403. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.014
[182] M. Shlapobersky, Q. Wei, S. Sullivan, and A. Vilalta, “Vaxfectin?-adjuvanted seasonal influenza protein vaccine: Correlation of systemic and local immunological markers with formulation parameters,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 46, 2009, pp. 6404-6410. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.087
[183] N. J. Steers, K. K. Peachman, S. McClain, C. R. Alving, and M. Rao, “Liposome-encapsulated HIV-1 Gag p24 containing lipid A induces effector CD4+ T-cells, memory CD8+ T-cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 49, 2009, pp. 6939-6949. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.105
[184] D. Christensen, M. Alleso, I. Rosenkrands, J. Rantanen, C. Foged, E. M. Agger, P. Andersen, and H. M. Nielsen, “NIR transmission spectroscopy for rapid determination of lipid and lyoprotector content in liposomal vaccine adjuvant system CAF01,” Eur J Pharm Biopharm, Vol. 70, No. 3, Nov 2008, pp. 914-20. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.07.007
[185] A. Pattani, R. K. Malcolm, and R. M. Curran, “Retro- ngineering of liposomal vaccine adjuvants: Role of a microarray-based screen,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1438-1439. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.070
[186] E. A. Vasievich, W. Chen, and L. Huang, “Enantiospecific adjuvant activity of cationic lipid DOTAP in cancer vaccine,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Jan 26 2011.
[187] B. Guy, N. Pascal, A. Francon, A. Bonnin, S. Gimenez, E. Lafay-Vialon, E. Trannoy, and J. Haensler, “Design, characterization and preclinical efficacy of a cationic lipid adjuvant for influenza split vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 13-14, Feb 8 2001, pp. 1794-805. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00386-8
[188] M. Brgles, L. Habjanec, B. Halassy, and J. Tomasic, “Liposome fusogenicity and entrapment efficiency of antigen determine the Th1/Th2 bias of antigen-specific immune response,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 40, Sep 4 2009, pp. 5435-42. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.012
[189] J. F. Mann, E. Shakir, K. C. Carter, A. B. Mullen, J. Alexander, and V. A. Ferro, “Lipid vesicle size of an oral influenza vaccine delivery vehicle influences the Th1/Th2 bias in the immune response and protection against infection,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 27, Jun 2 2009, pp. 3643-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.040
[190] J. Del Campo, M. Lindqvist, M. Cuello, M. B?ckstr?m, O. Cabrerra, J. Persson, O. Perez, and A. M. Harandi, “Intranasal immunization with a proteoliposome-derived cochleate containing recombinant gD protein confers protective immunity against genital herpes in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1193-1200. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.035
[191] C. Mesa, J. de Leon, and L. E. Fernandez, “Very small size proteoliposomes derived from Neisseria meningitidis: An effective adjuvant for generation of CTL responses to peptide and protein antigens,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 14, Mar 24 2006, pp. 2692-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.111
[192] T. Rodriguez, O. Perez, S. Ugrinovic, G. Bracho, and P. Mastroeni, “Bacterial derived proteoliposome as ideal delivery system and cellular adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-24-5.
[193] M. Lastre, O. Perez, A. Labrada, I. Bidot, J. Perez, G. Bracho, J. del Campo, D. Perez, E. Facenda, C. Zayas, C. Rodriguez, and G. Sierra, “Bacterial derived proteoliposome for allergy vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-34-5.
[194] J. L. Perez, R. Acevedo, A. Callico, Y. Fernandez, B. Cedre, G. Ano, L. Gonzalez, G. Falero, A. Talavera, O. Perez, and L. Garcia, “A proteoliposome based formulation administered by the nasal route produces vibriocidal antibodies against El Tor Ogawa Vibrio cholerae O1 in BALB/c mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jan 7 2009, pp. 205-12. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.052
[195] G. Bracho, M. Lastre, J. del Campo, C. Zayas, D. Gonzalez, D. Gil, R. Acevedo, C. Taboada, R. L. Solis, and O. Perez, “Proteoliposome derived cochleate as novel adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-30-1.
[196] T. Stauffer, “Virosome-based vaccine design,” in Novel Vaccines: Adjuvants and Delivery Systems Providence, RI, USA, 2009.
[197] C. Herzog, K. Hartmann, V. Kunzi, O. Kursteiner, R. Mischler, H. Lazar, and R. Gluck, “Eleven years of Inflexal V-a virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 33, Jul 16 2009, pp. 4381-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.029
[198] V. Kunzi, M. Dornseiff, J. Horwath, and K. Hartmann, “Safe vaccination of children with a virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 8, Feb 18 2009, pp. 1261-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.008
[199] M. Sedegah, W. O. Rogers, M. Belmonte, A. Belmonte, G. Banania, N. B. Patterson, D. Rusalov, M. Ferrari, T. L. Richie, and D. L. Doolan, “Vaxfectin? enhances both antibody and in vitro T cell responses to each component of a 5-gene Plasmodium falciparum plasmid DNA vaccine mixture administered at low doses,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 17, 2010, pp. 3055-3065. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.044
[200] L. R. Smith, M. K. Wloch, M. Ye, L. R. Reyes, S. Boutsaboualoy, C. E. Dunne, J. A. Chaplin, D. Rusalov, A. P. Rolland, C. L. Fisher, M. S. Al-Ibrahim, M. L. Kabongo, R. Steigbigel, R. B. Belshe, E. R. Kitt, A. H. Chu, and R. B. Moss, “Phase 1 clinical trials of the safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted plasmid DNA vaccines encoding influenza A virus H5 hemagglutinin,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 13, 2010, pp. 2565-2572. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.029
[201] V. A. Arankalle, K. S. Lole, T. M. Deshmukh, S. Srivastava, and U. S. Shaligram, “Challenge studies in Rhesus monkeys immunized with candidate hepatitis E vaccines: DNA, DNA-prime-protein-boost and DNA- rotein encapsulated in liposomes,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 7, Feb 11 2009, pp. 1032-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.097
[202] S. Shrivastava, K. S. Lole, A. S. Tripathy, U. S. Shaligram, and V. A. Arankalle, “Development of candidate combination vaccine for hepatitis E and hepatitis B: A liposome encapsulation approach,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 47, 2009, pp. 6582-6588. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.033
[203] T. M. Fahmy, S. L. Demento, M. J. Caplan, I. Mellman, and W. M. Saltzman, “Design opportunities for actively targeted nanoparticle vaccines,” Nanomed, Vol. 3, No. 3, Jun 2008, pp. 343-55. doi:10.2217/17435889.3.3.343
[204] T. J. Powell, N. Palath, M. E. DeRome, J. Tang, A. Jacobs, and J. G. Boyd, “Synthetic nanoparticle vaccines produced by layer-by-layer assembly of artificial biofilms induce potent protective T-cell and antibody responses in vivo,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2011, pp. 558-569. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.001
[205] E. Shahar, R. Gorodetsky, E. Gaberman, E. Aizenshtein, and J. Pitcovski, “Targeted microbeads for attraction and induction of specific innate immune response in the tumor microenvironment,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 45, Oct 21 2010, pp. 7279-87. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.083
[206] P. Malyala, J. Chesko, M. Ugozzoli, A. Goodsell, F. Zhou, M. Vajdy, D. T. O'Hagan, and M. Singh, “The potency of the adjuvant, CpG oligos, is enhanced by encapsulation in PLG microparticles,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 97, No. 3, Mar 2008, pp. 1155-64. doi:10.1002/jps.21065
[207] B. Slütter, S. Bal, C. Keijzer, R. Mallants, N. Hagenaars, I. Que, E. Kaijzel, W. van Eden, P. Augustijns, C. L?wik, J. Bouwstra, F. Broere, and W. Jiskoot, “Nasal vaccination with N-trimethyl chitosan and PLGA based nanoparticles: Nanoparticle characteristics determine quality and strength of the antibody response in mice against the encapsulated antigen,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 38, 2010, pp. 6282-6291. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.121
[208] P. G. Seferian and M. L. Martinez, “Immune stimulating activity of two new chitosan containing adjuvant formulations,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov 8 2000, pp. 661-8. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00248-6
[209] Z. Sui, Q. Chen, R. Wu, H. Zhang, M. Zheng, H. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Cross-protection against influenza virus infection by intranasal administration of M2-based vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant,” Arch Virol, Vol. 155, No. 4, Apr 2010, pp. 535-44. doi:10.1007/s00705-010-0621-4
[210] S. G. Markushin, Z. Gendon Iu, G. G. Krivtsov, Akopova, II, A. S. Sukhno, and A. D. Pereverzev, “[Increase of immunogenicity of cold-adapted influenza vaccine by using adjuvant],” Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol, No. 5, Sep-Oct 2010, pp. 29-34.
[211] H. Chang, X. Li, Y. Teng, Y. Liang, B. Peng, F. Fang, and Z. Chen, “Comparison of adjuvant efficacy of chitosan and aluminum hydroxide for intraperitoneally administered inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccine,” DNA Cell Biol, Vol. 29, No. 9, Sep 2010, pp. 563-8. doi:10.1089/dna.2009.0977
[212] X. Wang, T. Uto, T. Akagi, M. Akashi, and M. Baba, “Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) nanoparticles as an efficient antigen delivery and adjuvant system: potential for an AIDS vaccine,” J Med Virol, Vol. 80, No. 1, Jan 2008, pp. 11-9. doi:10.1002/jmv.21029
[213] S. Broos, K. Lundberg, T. Akagi, K. Kadowaki, M. Akashi, L. Greiff, C. A. K. Borrebaeck, and M. Lindstedt, “Immunomodulatory nanoparticles as adjuvants and allergen-delivery system to human dendritic cells: Implications for specific immunotherapy,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 31, 2010, pp. 5075-5085. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.004
[214] L. Stertman, L. Strindelius, and I. Sjoholm, “Starch microparticles as an adjuvant in immunisation: effect of route of administration on the immune response in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 21-22, Jul 29 2004, pp. 2863-72. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.019
[215] L. Stertman, E. Lundgren, and I. Sjoholm, “Starch microparticles as a vaccine adjuvant: only uptake in Peyer's patches decides the profile of the immune response,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 24 2006, pp. 3661-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.059
[216] L. El-Attar, S. L. Oliver, A. Mackie, A. Charpilienne, D. Poncet, J. Cohen, and J. C. Bridger, “Comparison of the efficacy of rotavirus VLP vaccines to a live homologous rotavirus vaccine in a pig model of rotavirus disease,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 24, May 21 2009, pp. 3201-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.043
[217] S. Hirosue, I. C. Kourtis, A. J. van der Vlies, J. A. Hubbell, and M. A. Swartz, “Antigen delivery to dendritic cells by poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles with disulfide conjugated peptides: Cross-presentation and T cell activation,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 50, 2010, pp. 7897-7906. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.09.077
[218] J. Wang, L. Lu, H. Song, Y. Yang, and Y. Ma, “[Effect of polyethylene glycol as adjuvant on hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine in vitro],” Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Vol. 50, No. 7, Jul 4 2010, pp. 949-54.
[219] A. C. Boesteanu, N. S. Babu, M. Wheatley, E. S. Papazoglou, and P. D. Katsikis, “Biopolymer encapsulated live influenza virus as a universal CD8+ T cell vaccine against influenza virus,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2010, pp. 314-322. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.036
[220] S. Garlapati, N. F. Eng, H. L. Wilson, R. Buchanan, G. K. Mutwiri, L. A. Babiuk, and V. Gerdts, “PCPP (poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)-phosphazene]) microparticles co-encapsulating ovalbumin and CpG oligo-deoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of antigen specific Th1 immune responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 52, 2010, pp. 8306-8314. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.09.080
[221] L. V. Carvalho, R. d. C. Ruiz, K. Scaramuzzi, E. B. Marengo, J. R. Matos, D. V. Tambourgi, M. C. A. Fantini, and O. A. Sant'Anna, “Immunological parameters related to the adjuvant effect of the ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 50, 2010, pp. 7829-7836. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.09.087
[222] F. Aline, D. Brand, J. Pierre, P. Roingeard, M. Severine, B. Verrier, and I. Dimier-Poisson, “Dendritic cells loaded with HIV-1 p24 proteins adsorbed on surfactant-free anionic PLA nanoparticles induce enhanced cellular immune responses against HIV-1 after vaccination,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 38, Aug 20 2009, pp. 5284-91. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.028
[223] C. Prego, P. Paolicelli, B. Díaz, S. Vicente, A. Sánchez, á. González-Fernández, and M. J. Alonso, “Chitosan- based nanoparticles for improving immunization against hepatitis B infection,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 14, 2010, pp. 2607-2614. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.011
[224] S. M. Sivakumar, N. Sukumaran, L. Nirmala, R. Swarnalakshmi, B. Anilbabu, L. Siva, J. Anbu, T. S. Shanmugarajan, and V. Ravichandran, “Immunopotentiation of hepatitis B vaccine using biodegradable polymers as an adjuvant,” J Microbiol Immunol Infect, Vol. 43, No. 4, Aug 2010, pp. 265-70. doi:10.1016/S1684-1182(10)60042-4
[225] J. Wendorf, J. Chesko, J. Kazzaz, M. Ugozzoli, M. Vajdy, D. O'Hagan, and M. Singh, “A comparison of anionic nanoparticles and microparticles as vaccine delivery systems,” Hum Vaccin, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2008, pp. 44-9. doi:10.4161/hv.4.1.4886
[226] E. Mata, A. M. Carcaboso, R. M. Hernandez, M. Igartua, G. Corradin, and J. L. Pedraz, “Adjuvant activity of polymer microparticles and Montanide ISA 720 on immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum MSP2 long synthetic peptides in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jan 15 2007, pp. 877-85. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.09.036
[227] Y. Ghendon, S. Markushin, G. Krivtsov, and I. Akopova, “Chitosan as an adjuvant for parenterally administered inactivated influenza vaccines,” Arch Virol, Vol. 153, No. 5, 2008, pp. 831-7. doi:10.1007/s00705-008-0047-4
[228] H. L. Jiang, M. L. Kang, J. S. Quan, S. G. Kang, T. Akaike, H. S. Yoo, and C. S. Cho, “The potential of mannosylated chitosan microspheres to target macrophage mannose receptors in an adjuvant-delivery system for intranasal immunization,” Biomaterials, Vol. 29, No. 12, Apr 2008, pp. 1931-9. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.12.025
[229] S. Okamoto, H. Yoshii, T. Akagi, M. Akashi, T. Ishikawa, Y. Okuno, M. Takahashi, K. Yamanishi, and Y. Mori, “Influenza hemagglutinin vaccine with poly(gamma-glutamic acid) nanoparticles enhances the protection against influenza virus infection through both humoral and cell-mediated immunity,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 49, Nov 28 2007, pp. 8270-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.09.051
[230] S. A. Moschos, V. W. Bramwell, S. Somavarapu, and H. O. Alpar, “Comparative immunomodulatory properties of a chitosan-MDP adjuvant combination following intranasal or intramuscular immunisation,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 16, Mar 14 2005, pp. 1923-30. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.016
[231] J. Patel, D. Galey, J. Jones, P. Ray, J. G. Woodward, A. Nath, and R. J. Mumper, “HIV-1 Tat-coated nanoparticles result in enhanced humoral immune responses and neutralizing antibodies compared to alum adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 24 2006, pp. 3564-73. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.01.065
[232] R. Voltan, A. Castaldello, E. Brocca-Cofano, R. De Michele, C. Triulzi, G. Altavilla, L. Tondelli, M. Laus, K. Sparnacci, E. Reali, R. Gavioli, B. Ensoli, and A. Caputo, “Priming with a very low dose of DNA complexed with cationic block copolymers followed by protein boost elicits broad and long-lasting antigen-specific humoral and cellular responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 33, Jul 16 2009, pp. 4498-507. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.031
[233] R. Ramya, P. C. Verma, V. K. Chaturvedi, P. K. Gupta, K. D. Pandey, M. Madhanmohan, T. R. Kannaki, R. Sridevi, and B. Anukumar, “Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: A potent oral delivery system to elicit systemic immune response against inactivated rabies virus,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 15, 2009, pp. 2138-2143. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.129
[234] N. Rydell and I. Sjoholm, “Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 21, Apr 15 2005, pp. 2775-83. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.049
[235] S. Okamoto, M. Matsuura, T. Akagi, M. Akashi, T. Tanimoto, T. Ishikawa, M. Takahashi, K. Yamanishi, and Y. Mori, “Poly([gamma]-glutamic acid) nano-particles combined with mucosal influenza virus hemagglutinin vaccine protects against influenza virus infection in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 42, 2009, pp. 5896-5905. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.037
[236] K. Oda, H. Matsuda, T. Murakami, S. Katayama, T. Ohgitani, and M. Yoshikawa, “Relationship between adjuvant activity and amphipathic structure of soyasaponins,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 17-18, May 16 2003, pp. 2145-51. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00739-9
[237] S. K. Kim, G. Ragupathi, S. Cappello, E. Kagan, and P. O. Livingston, “Effect of immunological adjuvant combinations on the antibody and T-cell response to vaccination with MUC1-KLH and GD3-KLH conjugates,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 4-5, Oct 15 2000, pp. 530-7. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00195-X
[238] K. Deng, M. M. Adams, P. Damani, P. O. Livingston, G. Ragupathi, and D. Y. Gin, “Synthesis of QS-21-xylose: establishment of the immunopotentiating activity of synthetic QS-21 adjuvant with a melanoma vaccine,” Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, Vol. 47, No. 34, 2008, pp. 6395-8. doi:10.1002/anie.200801885
[239] H.-X. Sun, Y. Xie, and Y.-P. Ye, “Advances in saponin-based adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1787-1796. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.091
[240] A. Ghochikyan, M. Mkrtichyan, I. Petrushina, N. Movsesyan, A. Karapetyan, D. H. Cribbs, and M. G. Agadjanyan, “Prototype Alzheimer's disease epitope vaccine induced strong Th2-type anti-Abeta antibody response with Alum to Quil A adjuvant switch,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 13, Mar 20 2006, pp. 2275-82. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.039
[241] X. Song, S. Bao, L. Wu, and S. Hu, “Ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1 2009, pp. 51-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.030
[242] C. N. Fogg, J. L. Americo, S. Lustig, J. W. Huggins, S. K. Smith, I. Damon, W. Resch, P. L. Earl, D. M. Klinman, and B. Moss, “Adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses to recombinant proteins correlates with protection of mice and monkeys to orthopoxvirus challenges,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 15, Apr 12 2007, pp. 2787-99. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.12.037
[243] O. Hacariz, G. Sayers, M. McCullough, M. Garrett, J. O'Donovan, and G. Mulcahy, “The effect of Quil A adjuvant on the course of experimental Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1 2009, pp. 45-50. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.035
[244] S. K. Kim, G. Ragupathi, C. Musselli, S. J. Choi, Y. S. Park, and P. O. Livingston, “Comparison of the effect of different immunological adjuvants on the antibody and T-cell response to immunization with MUC1-KLH and GD3-KLH conjugate cancer vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 7-8, Nov 12 1999, pp. 597-603. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00316-3
[245] G. Ragupathi, P. Damani, K. Deng, M. M. Adams, J. Hang, C. George, P. O. Livingston, and D. Y. Gin, “Preclinical evaluation of the synthetic adjuvant SQS-21 and its constituent isomeric saponins,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 26, 2010, pp. 4260-4267. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.034
[246] O. Kashala, R. Amador, M. V. Valero, A. Moreno, A. Barbosa, B. Nickel, C. A. Daubenberger, F. Guzman, G. Pluschke, and M. E. Patarroyo, “Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of new formulations of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria peptide vaccine SPf66 combined with the immunological adjuvant QS-21,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 17-18, May 22 2002, pp. 2263-77. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00115-9
[247] T. G. Evans, M. J. McElrath, T. Matthews, D. Montefiori, K. Weinhold, M. Wolff, M. C. Keefer, E. G. Kallas, L. Corey, G. J. Gorse, R. Belshe, B. S. Graham, P. W. Spearman, D. Schwartz, M. J. Mulligan, P. Goepfert, P. Fast, P. Berman, M. Powell, and D. Francis, “QS-21 promotes an adjuvant effect allowing for reduced antigen dose during HIV-1 envelope subunit immunization in humans,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 15-16, Feb 28 2001, pp. 2080-91. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00415-1
[248] I. Mbawuike, Y. Zang, and R. B. Couch, “Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of humans to inactivated influenza vaccine with or without QS21 adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 17, Apr 30 2007, pp. 3263-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.01.073
[249] Y. Xie, H. X. Sun, and D. Li, “Platycodin D is a potent adjuvant of specific cellular and humoral immune responses against recombinant hepatitis B antigen,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 5, Jan 29 2009, pp. 757-764. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.029
[250] G. Liu, C. Anderson, H. Scaltreto, J. Barbon, and C. R. Kensil, “QS-21 structure/function studies: effect of acylation on adjuvant activity,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 21-22, Jun 21 2002, pp. 2808-15. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00209-8
[251] B. Karanam, R. Gambhira, S. Peng, S. Jagu, D. J. Kim, G. W. Ketner, P. L. Stern, R. J. Adams, and R. B. Roden, “Vaccination with HPV16 L2E6E7 fusion protein in GPI-0100 adjuvant elicits protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 7, Feb 11 2009, pp. 1040-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.099
[252] S. F. Slovin, G. Ragupathi, C. Fernandez, M. P. Jefferson, M. Diani, A. S. Wilton, S. Powell, M. Spassova, C. Reis, H. Clausen, S. Danishefsky, P. Livingston, and H. I. Scher, “A bivalent conjugate vaccine in the treatment of biochemically relapsed prostate cancer: a study of glycosylated MUC-2-KLH and Globo H-KLH conjugate vaccines given with the new semi-synthetic saponin immunological adjuvant GPI-0100 OR QS-21,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 24, May 2 2005, pp. 3114-22. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.072
[253] X. Song and S. Hu, “Adjuvant activities of saponins from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 36, Aug 6 2009, pp. 4883-90. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.033
[254] H. X. Sun, “Adjuvant effect of Achyranthes bidentata saponins on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 17, Apr 24 2006, pp. 3432-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.02.014
[255] H. X. Sun and H. J. Pan, “Immunological adjuvant effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 11, Mar 10 2006, pp. 1914-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.040
[256] H. X. Sun, “Haemolytic activities and adjuvant effect of Bupleurum chinense saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 9, Feb 27 2006, pp. 1324-31. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.030
[257] J. Sun, S. Hu, and X. Song, “Adjuvant effects of protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol saponins from ginseng roots on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 6, Jan 22 2007, pp. 1114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.09.054
[258] G. T. Jennings and M. F. Bachmann, “The coming of age of virus-like particle vaccines,” Biol Chem, Vol. 389, No. 5, May 2008, pp. 521-36. doi:10.1515/BC.2008.064
[259] Z. Hunter, H. D. Smyth, P. Durfee, and B. Chackerian, “Induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV coreceptor CCR5 upon intramuscular immunization and aerosol delivery of a virus-like particle based vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2010, pp. 403-414. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.035
[260] R. M. Ionescu, C. T. Przysiecki, X. Liang, V. M. Garsky, J. Fan, B. Wang, R. Troutman, Y. Rippeon, E. Flanagan, J. Shiver, and L. Shi, “Pharmaceutical and immunological evaluation of human papillomavirus viruslike particle as an antigen carrier,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 95, No. 1, Jan 2006, pp. 70-9. doi:10.1002/jps.20493
[261] R. Lang, G. Winter, L. Vogt, A. Zurcher, B. Dorigo, and B. Schimmele, “Rational design of a stable, freeze-dried virus-like particle-based vaccine formulation,” Drug Dev Ind Pharm, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan 2009, pp. 83-97. doi:10.1080/03639040802192806
[262] T.-M. Fu, K. M. Grimm, M. P. Citron, D. C. Freed, J. Fan, P. M. Keller, J. W. Shiver, X. Liang, and J. G. Joyce, “Comparative immunogenicity evaluations of influenza A virus M2 peptide as recombinant virus like particle or conjugate vaccines in mice and monkeys,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1440-1447. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.034
[263] B. Bellier, C. Dalba, B. Clerc, D. Desjardins, R. Drury, F. L. Cosset, M. Collins, and D. Klatzmann, “DNA vaccines encoding retrovirus-based virus-like particles induce efficient immune responses without adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 14, Mar 24 2006, pp. 2643-55. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.034
[264] S. Jain, A. J. Patrick, and K. L. Rosenthal, “Multiple tandem copies of conserved gp41 epitopes incorporated in gag virus-like particles elicit systemic and mucosal antibodies in an optimized heterologous vector delivery regimen,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 43, 2010, pp. 7070-7080. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.009
[265] D. R. Tonkin, P. Jorquera, T. Todd, C. W. Beard, R. E. Johnston, and M. Barro, “Alphavirus replicon-based enhancement of mucosal and systemic immunity is linked to the innate response generated by primary immunization,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 18, 2010, pp. 3238-3246. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.010
[266] T. D. Carroll, S. R. Matzinger, M. Barro, L. Fritts, M. B. McChesney, C. J. Miller, and R. E. Johnston, “Alphavirus replicon-based adjuvants enhance the immunogenicity and effectiveness of Fluzone? in rhesus macaques,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2011, pp. 931-940. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.024
[267] M. M. Erdman, K. I. Kamrud, D. L. Harris, and J. Smith, “Alphavirus replicon particle vaccines developed for use in humans induce high levels of antibodies to influenza virus hemagglutinin in swine: Proof of concept,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2010, pp. 594-596. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.015
[268] E. M. P?llabauer, R. Petermann, and H. J. Ehrlich, “The influence of carrier protein on the immunogenicity of simultaneously administered conjugate vaccines in infants,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1674-1679. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.005
[269] J. Fan, X. Liang, M. S. Horton, H. C. Perry, M. P. Citron, G. J. Heidecker, T. M. Fu, J. Joyce, C. T. Przysiecki, P. M. Keller, V. M. Garsky, R. Ionescu, Y. Rippeon, L. Shi, M. A. Chastain, J. H. Condra, M. E. Davies, J. Liao, E. A. Emini, and J. W. Shiver, “Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 23-24, Aug 13 2004, pp. 2993-3003. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.02.021
[270] S. H. L. de Villiers, N. Lindblom, G. Kalayanov, S. Gordon, I. Baraznenok, A. Malmerfelt, M. M. Marcus, A. M. Johansson, and T. H. Svensson, “Nicotine hapten structure, antibody selectivity and effect relationships: Results from a nicotine vaccine screening procedure,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 10, 2010, pp. 2161-2168. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.051
[271] C. D. Pack, U. Kumaraguru, S. Suvas, and B. T. Rouse, “Heat-shock protein 70 acts as an effective adjuvant in neonatal mice and confers protection against challenge with herpes simplex virus,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 27, May 20 2005, pp. 3526-34. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.152
[272] X. Jinshu, L. Jingjing, P. Duan, Z. Zheng, M. Ding, W. Jie, C. Rongyue, H. Zhuoyi, and R. S. Roque, “A synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine for control of fertility and hormone dependent diseases without any adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 40, Sep 23 2005, pp. 4834-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.05.010
[273] B. Valentinis, A. Capobianco, F. Esposito, A. Bianchi, P. Rovere-Querini, A. A. Manfredi, and C. Traversari, “Human recombinant heat shock protein 70 affects the maturation pathways of dendritic cells in vitro and has an in vivo adjuvant activity,” J Leukoc Biol, Vol. 84, No. 1, Jul 2008, pp. 199-206. doi:10.1189/jlb.0807548
[274] A. Bolhassani, F. Zahedifard, M. Taghikhani, and S. Rafati, “Enhanced immunogenicity of HPV16E7 accompanied by Gp96 as an adjuvant in two vaccination strategies,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 26, Jun 19 2008, pp. 3362-70. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.082
[275] D. Bellido, P. O. Craig, M. V. Mozgovoj, D. D. Gonzalez, A. Wigdorovitz, F. A. Goldbaum, and M. J. Dus Santos, “Brucella spp. lumazine synthase as a bovine rotavirus antigen delivery system,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1 2009, pp. 136-45. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.018
[276] M. T. De Magistris, “Zonula occludens toxin as a new promising adjuvant for mucosal vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-60-1.
[277] Y. J. Lu, P. Yadav, J. D. Clements, S. Forte, A. Srivastava, C. M. Thompson, R. Seid, J. Look, M. Alderson, A. Tate, J. F. Maisonneuve, G. Robertson, P. W. Anderson, and R. Malley, “Options for inactivation, adjuvant, and route of topical administration of a killed, unencapsulated pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine,” Clin Vaccine Immunol, Vol. 17, No. 6, Jun 2010, pp. 1005-12. doi:10.1128/CVI.00036-10
[278] M. Kende, G. Del Giudice, N. Rivera, and J. Hewetson, “Enhancement of intranasal vaccination in mice with deglycosylated chain A ricin by LTR72, a novel mucosal adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 12, Mar 15 2006, pp. 2213-21. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.12.034
[279] Y. Hagiwar, T. Tsuji, T. Iwasaki, S. Kadowaki, H. Asanuma, Z. Chen, K. Komase, Y. Suzuki, C. Aizawa, T. Kurata, and S. Tamura, “Effectiveness and safety of mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT H44A) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 15-16, Feb 28 2001, pp. 2071-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00414-X
[280] M. Tempesta, M. Camero, A. L. Bellacicco, E. Tarsitano, A. Lorusso, V. Martella, N. Decaro, G. Del Giudice, A. Cassone, A. Quaranta, and C. Buonavoglia, “Caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine with the LTK63 mutant as a mucosal adjuvant induces strong protection against genital infection in goats,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 46, Nov 14 2007, pp. 7927-30. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.09.004
[281] C. Palma, E. Iona, F. Giannoni, M. Pardini, L. Brunori, L. Fattorini, G. Del Giudice, and A. Cassone, “The LTK63 adjuvant improves protection conferred by Ag85B DNA-protein prime-boosting vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by dampening IFN-gamma response,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 33, Aug 5 2008, pp. 4237-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.050
[282] M. Isaka, T. Komiya, M. Takahashi, Y. Yasuda, T. Taniguchi, Y. Zhao, K. Matano, H. Matsui, J. Maeyama, K. Morokuma, K. Ohkuma, N. Goto, and K. Tochikubo, “Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) as a mucosal adjuvant enhances induction of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin antibodies in mice by intranasal administration with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) combination vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 23-24, Aug 13 2004, pp. 3061-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.02.019
[283] D. Mizuno, M. Ide-Kurihara, T. Ichinomiya, I. Kubo, and H. Kido, “Modified pulmonary surfactant is a potent adjuvant that stimulates the mucosal IgA production in response to the influenza virus antigen,” J Immunol, Vol. 176, No. 2, Jan 15 2006, pp. 1122-30.
[284] M. C. Gagliardi and M. T. De Magistris, “Maturation of human dendritic cells induced by the adjuvant cholera toxin: role of cAMP on chemokine receptor expression,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 9-10, Feb 14 2003, pp. 856-61. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00532-7
[285] V. P. da Hora, F. R. Concei??o, O. A. Dellagostin, and D. L. Doolan, “Non-toxic derivatives of LT as potent adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1538-1544. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.091
[286] H. R. Shinefield, “Overview of the development and current use of CRM197 conjugate vaccines for pediatric use,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 27, 2010, pp. 4335-4339. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.072
[287] E. Fingerut, B. Gutter, R. Meir, D. Eliahoo, and J. Pitcovski, “Vaccine and adjuvant activity of recombinant subunit B of E. coli enterotoxin produced in yeast,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 38, Sep 7 2005, pp. 4685-96. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.03.050
[288] F. Deauvieau, S. Dussurgey, D. Rossignol, A. de Montfort, N. Burdin, and B. Guy, “Memory B and T cell responses induced by serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines: Longitudinal analysis comparing responses elicited by free polysaccharide, conjugate and carrier,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 576-582. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.081
[289] C. E. Frasch, “Preparation of bacterial polysaccharide- rotein conjugates: Analytical and manufacturing challenges,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 46, 2009, pp. 6468-6470. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.013
[290] C. Cheng, I. Bettahi, M. I. Cruz-Fisher, S. Pal, P. Jain, Z. Jia, J. Holmgren, A. M. Harandi, and L. M. de la Maza, “Induction of protective immunity by vaccination against Chlamydia trachomatis using the major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide coupled to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 44, 2009, pp. 6239-6246. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.108
[291] S. L. Demento, S. C. Eisenbarth, H. G. Foellmer, C. Platt, M. J. Caplan, W. Mark Saltzman, I. Mellman, M. Ledizet, E. Fikrig, R. A. Flavell, and T. M. Fahmy, “Inflammasome-activating nanoparticles as modular systems for optimizing vaccine efficacy,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 23, May 18 2009, pp. 3013-21. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.034
[292] S. P. Bak, E. Amiel, J. J. Walters, and B. Berwin, “Calreticulin requires an ancillary adjuvant for the induction of efficient cytotoxic T cell responses,” Mol Immunol, Vol. 45, No. 5, Mar 2008, pp. 1414-23. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.08.020
[293] N. Petrovsky, “Novel human polysaccharide adjuvants with dual Th1 and Th2 potentiating activity,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-26-9.
[294] J. J. de Vries, L. Bungener, W. Ter Veer, L. van Alphen, P. van der Ley, J. Wilschut, and A. Huckriede, “Incorporation of LpxL1, a detoxified lipopolysaccharide adjuvant, in influenza H5N1 virosomes increases vaccine immunogenicity,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 6, Feb 5 2009, pp. 947-55. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.046
[295] J. A. Balboa, M. Cuello, O. Cabrera, J. del Campo, M. Lastre, D. Gil, C. Taboada, M. Farinas, M. Hernandez, and O. Perez, “Adjuvant properties of lipopolysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B detoxified and conjugated with tetanus toxoid,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-63-4.
[296] M. Lobigs, M. Pavy, R. A. Hall, P. Lobigs, P. Cooper, T. Komiya, H. Toriniwa, and N. Petrovsky, “An inactivated Vero cell-grown Japanese encephalitis vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel inulin-based adjuvant, induces protective neutralizing antibody against homologous and heterologous flaviviruses,” J Gen Virol, Vol. 91, No. Pt 6, Jun 2010, pp. 1407-17.
[297] Y. Sun and J. Liu, “Adjuvant effect of water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) from the mycelium of Polyporus albicans on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 31, Jul 23 2008, pp. 3932-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.018
[298] A. Khajuria, A. Gupta, F. Malik, S. Singh, J. Singh, B. D. Gupta, K. A. Suri, P. Suden, V. K. Srinivas, K. Ella, and G. N. Qazi, “A new vaccine adjuvant (BOS 2000) a potent enhancer mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses in mice immunized with HBsAg,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 23, Jun 6 2007, pp. 4586-94. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.03.051
[299] Z. Guo, Y. Hu, D. Wang, X. Ma, X. Zhao, B. Zhao, J. Wang, and P. Liu, “Sulfated modification can enhance the adjuvanticity of lentinan and improve the immune effect of ND vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 5, Jan 29 2009, pp. 660-5. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.038
[300] V. K. Berner, M. E. Sura, and K. W. Hunter, Jr., “Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta- lucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, Vol. 80, No. 6, Oct 2008, pp. 1053-61. doi:10.1007/s00253-008-1618-8
[301] C. R. Casella and T. C. Mitchell, “Putting endotoxin to work for us: monophosphoryl lipid A as a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant,” Cell Mol Life Sci, Vol. 65, No. 20, Oct 2008, pp. 3231-40. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-8228-6
[302] B. Pajak, V. Garze, G. Davies, J. Bauer, M. Moser, and C. Chiavaroli, “The adjuvant OM-174 induces both the migration and maturation of murine dendritic cells in vivo,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 9-10, Feb 14 2003, pp. 836-42. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00529-7
[303] M. Golkar, M. A. Shokrgozar, S. Rafati, K. Musset, M. Assmar, R. Sadaie, M. F. Cesbron-Delauw, and C. Mercier, “Evaluation of protective effect of recombinant dense granule antigens GRA2 and GRA6 formulated in monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant against Toxoplasma chronic infection in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 21, May 22 2007, pp. 4301-11. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.057
[304] S. L. Baldwin, N. Shaverdian, Y. Goto, M. S. Duthie, V. S. Raman, T. Evers, F. Mompoint, T. S. Vedvick, S. Bertholet, R. N. Coler, and S. G. Reed, “Enhanced humoral and Type 1 cellular immune responses with Fluzone? adjuvanted with a synthetic TLR4 agonist formulated in an emulsion,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 43, 2009, pp. 5956-5963. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.081
[305] R. N. Coler, S. Bertholet, M. Moutaftsi, J. A. Guderian, H. P. Windish, S. L. Baldwin, E. M. Laughlin, M. S. Duthie, C. B. Fox, D. Carter, M. Friede, T. S. Vedvick, and S. G. Reed, “Development and characterization of synthetic glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant system as a vaccine adjuvant,” PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2011, p. e16333. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016333
[306] Y. Goto, L. Y. Bogatzki, S. Bertholet, R. N. Coler, and S. G. Reed, “Protective immunization against visceral leishmaniasis using Leishmania sterol 24-c-ethyltransferase formulated in adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 42, Oct 16 2007, pp. 7450-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.08.001
[307] A. W. Wheeler, J. S. Marshall, and J. T. Ulrich, “A Th1-inducing adjuvant, MPL, enhances antibody profiles in experimental animals suggesting it has the potential to improve the efficacy of allergy vaccines,” Int Arch Allergy Immunol, Vol. 126, No. 2, Oct 2001, pp. 135-9. doi:10.1159/000049504
[308] G. B. Patel and W. Chen, “Archaeal lipid mucosal vaccine adjuvant and delivery system,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 9, No. 4, Apr 2010, pp. 431-40. doi:10.1586/erv.10.34
[309] G. B. Patel, H. Zhou, A. Ponce, G. Harris, and W. Chen, “Intranasal immunization with an archaeal lipid mucosal vaccine adjuvant and delivery formulation protects against a respiratory pathogen challenge,” PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 12, 2010, p. e15574. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015574
[310] L. Perrin-Cocon, S. Agaugue, F. Coutant, P. Saint-Mezard, A. Guironnet-Paquet, J. F. Nicolas, P. Andre, and V. Lotteau, “Lysophosphatidylcholine is a natural adjuvant that initiates cellular immune responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 9, Feb 27 2006, pp. 1254-63. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.036
[311] R. Acevedo, D. Gil, J. del Campo, G. Bracho, Y. Valdes, and O. Perez, “The adjuvant potential of synthetic alkylglycerols,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-32-3.
[312] M. Mizrahi, G. Lalazar, A. Ben Ya'acov, D. M. Livovsky, Y. Horowitz, L. Zolotarov, R. Adler, D. Shouval, and Y. Ilan, “Beta-glycoglycosphingolipid-induced augmentation of the anti-HBV immune response is associated with altered CD8 and NKT lymphocyte distribution: a novel adjuvant for HBV vaccination,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 21, May 19 2008, pp. 2589-95. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.026
[313] A. N. Courtney, P. N. Nehete, B. P. Nehete, P. Thapa, D. Zhou, and K. J. Sastry, “Alpha-galactosylceramide is an effective mucosal adjuvant for repeated intranasal or oral delivery of HIV peptide antigens,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 25-26, May 26 2009, pp. 3335-41. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.083
[314] P. Thapa, G. Zhang, C. Xia, A. Gelbard, W. W. Overwijk, C. Liu, P. Hwu, D. Z. Chang, A. Courtney, J. K. Sastry, P. G. Wang, C. Li, and D. Zhou, “Nanoparticle formulated alpha-galactosylceramide activates NKT cells without inducing anergy,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 25-26, May 26 2009, pp. 3484-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.047
[315] X. Li, M. Fujio, M. Imamura, D. Wu, S. Vasan, C. H. Wong, D. D. Ho, and M. Tsuji, “Design of a potent CD1d-binding NKT cell ligand as a vaccine adjuvant,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Vol. 107, No. 29, Jul 20 2010, pp. 13010-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006662107
[316] N. N. Padte, X. Li, M. Tsuji, and S. Vasan, “Clinical development of a novel CD1d-binding NKT cell ligand as a vaccine adjuvant,” Clin Immunol, Dec 24 2010,
[317] J. Hinkula, C. Devito, B. Zuber, R. Benthin, D. Ferreira, B. Wahren, and U. Schroder, “A novel DNA adjuvant, N3, enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by HIV-1 DNA and peptide immunizations,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 21, May 22 2006, pp. 4494-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.015
[318] A. Brave, D. Hallengard, U. Schroder, P. Blomberg, B. Wahren, and J. Hinkula, “Intranasal immunization of young mice with a multigene HIV-1 vaccine in combination with the N3 adjuvant induces mucosal and systemic immune responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 40, Sep 19 2008, pp. 5075-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.066
[319] Z. H. Jiang, W. A. Budzynski, D. Qiu, D. Yalamati, and R. R. Koganty, “Monophosphoryl lipid A analogues with varying 3-O-substitution: synthesis and potent adjuvant activity,” Carbohydr Res, Vol. 342, No. 6, May 7 2007, pp. 784-96. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2007.01.012
[320] H. Kayamuro, Y. Yoshioka, Y. Abe, H. Kamada, S. Tsunoda, and Y. Tsutsumi, “[Application of bioactive mutant TNF alpha to a mucosal vaccine adjuvant],” Yakugaku Zasshi, Vol. 130, No. 1, Jan 2010, pp. 55-61. doi:10.1248/yakushi.130.55
[321] H. Kayamuro, Y. Abe, Y. Yoshioka, K. Katayama, T. Yoshida, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshikawa, Y. Kawai, T. Mayumi, T. Hiroi, N. Itoh, K. Nagano, H. Kamada, S. Tsunoda, and Y. Tsutsumi, “Mutant TNF-alpha, mTNF-K90R, is a novel candidate adjuvant for a mucosal vaccine against HIV,” Pharmazie, Vol. 65, No. 4, Apr 2010, pp. 254-6.
[322] L. Bracci, I. Canini, M. Venditti, M. Spada, S. Puzelli, I. Donatelli, F. Belardelli, and E. Proietti, “Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-56-7.
[323] M. G. Tovey, C. Lallemand, J. F. Meritet, and C. Maury, “Adjuvant activity of interferon alpha: mechanism(s) of action,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-46-7.
[324] M. E. Miquilena-Colina, T. Lozano-Rodriguez, L. Garcia- ozo, A. Saez, P. Rizza, I. Capone, M. Rapicetta, P. Chionne, M. Capobianchi, M. Selleri, C. Castilletti, F. Belardelli, O. L. Iacono, and C. Garcia-Monzon, “Recombinant interferon-alpha2b improves immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in haemodialysis patients: results of a randomised clinical trial,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 41, Sep 18 2009, pp. 5654-60. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.014
[325] G. Cheng, X. Zhao, W. Yan, W. Wang, X. Zuo, K. Huang, Y. Liu, J. Chen, J. Wang, W. Cong, M. Liu, H. Gao, Y. Lu, and Z. Zheng, “Alpha interferon is a powerful adjuvant for a recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine, and an effective stimulus of in vivo immune response,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 28, Jul 9 2007, pp. 5199-208. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.04.089
[326] L. Bracci, I. Canini, S. Puzelli, P. Sestili, M. Venditti, M. Spada, I. Donatelli, F. Belardelli, and E. Proietti, “Type I IFN is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for a selective intranasal vaccination against influenza virus in mice and affects antigen capture at mucosal level,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 23, Apr 27 2005, pp. 2994-3004. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.12.006
[327] R. B. Couch, R. L. Atmar, T. R. Cate, J. M. Quarles, W. A. Keitel, N. H. Arden, J. Wells, D. Nino, and P. R. Wyde, “Contrasting effects of type I interferon as a mucosal adjuvant for influenza vaccine in mice and humans,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 39, Aug 27 2009, pp. 5344-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.084
[328] G. Parmiani, C. Castelli, L. Pilla, M. Santinami, M. P. Colombo, and L. Rivoltini, “Opposite immune functions of GM-CSF administered as vaccine adjuvant in cancer patients,” Ann Oncol, Vol. 18, No. 2, Feb 2007, pp. 226-32. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl158
[329] M. Cruciani, C. Mengoli, G. Serpelloni, R. Mazzi, O. Bosco, and M. Malena, “Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as an adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccination: a meta-analysis,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 4, Jan 8 2007, pp. 709-18. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.08.015
[330] J. T. Qiu, T. C. Chang, C. T. Lin, Y. M. Chen, F. Q. Li, Y. K. Soong, and C. H. Lai, “Novel codon-optimized GM-CSF gene as an adjuvant to enhance the immunity of a DNA vaccine against HIV-1 Gag,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jan 4 2007, pp. 253-63. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.07.034
[331] M. Yagci, K. Acar, G. T. Sucak, K. Yamac, and R. Haznedar, “Hepatitis B virus vaccine in lymphoproliferative disorders: a prospective randomized study evaluating the efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor as a vaccine adjuvant,” Eur J Haematol, Vol. 79, No. 4, Oct 2007, pp. 292-6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2007.00912.x
[332] R. Xu, S. Megati, V. Roopchand, A. Luckay, A. Masood, D. Garcia-Hand, M. Rosati, D. B. Weiner, B. K. Felber, G. N. Pavlakis, M. K. Sidhu, J. H. Eldridge, and M. A. Egan, “Comparative ability of various plasmid-based cytokines and chemokines to adjuvant the activity of HIV plasmid DNA vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 37, Sep 2 2008, pp. 4819-29. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.103
[333] P. Spearman, S. Kalams, M. Elizaga, B. Metch, Y. L. Chiu, M. Allen, K. J. Weinhold, G. Ferrari, S. D. Parker, M. J. McElrath, S. E. Frey, J. D. Fuchs, M. C. Keefer, M. D. Lubeck, M. Egan, R. Braun, J. H. Eldridge, B. F. Haynes, and L. Corey, “Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jan 7 2009, pp. 243-249.
[334] J. Somani, S. Lonial, H. Rosenthal, S. Resnick, I. Kakhniashvili, and E. K. Waller, “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous administration of GM-CSF as a vaccine adjuvant: effect on cellular and humoral immune responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 3-4, Dec 13 2002, pp. 221-30. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00463-2
[335] A. K. Wright, D. E. Briles, D. W. Metzger, and S. B. Gordon, “Prospects for use of interleukin-12 as a mucosal adjuvant for vaccination of humans to protect against respiratory pneumococcal infection,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 38, Sep 8 2008, pp. 4893-903. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.058
[336] J. E. Portielje, W. H. Kruit, A. J. Eerenberg, M. Schuler, A. Sparreboom, C. H. Lamers, J. W. Gratama, G. Stoter, C. Huber, and C. E. Hack, “Subcutaneous injection of interleukin 12 induces systemic inflammatory responses in humans: implications for the use of IL-12 as vaccine adjuvant,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp. 37-43. doi:10.1007/s00262-004-0574-0
[337] M. A. Jacobson, E. Sinclair, B. Bredt, L. Agrillo, D. Black, C. L. Epling, A. Carvidi, T. Ho, R. Bains, V. Girling, and S. P. Adler, “Safety and immunogenicity of Towne cytomegalovirus vaccine with or without adjuvant recombinant interleukin-12,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 25, Jun 19 2006, pp. 5311-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.04.017
[338] E. B. Schadeck, M. Sidhu, M. A. Egan, S. Y. Chong, P. Piacente, A. Masood, D. Garcia-Hand, S. Cappello, V. Roopchand, S. Megati, J. Quiroz, J. D. Boyer, B. K. Felber, G. N. Pavlakis, D. B. Weiner, J. H. Eldridge, and Z. R. Israel, “A dose sparing effect by plasmid encoded IL-12 adjuvant on a SIVgag-plasmid DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 21, May 22 2006, pp. 4677-87. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.035
[339] H. Yamanaka, T. Hoyt, R. Bowen, X. Yang, K. Crist, S. Golden, M. Maddaloni, and D. W. Pascual, “An IL-12 DNA vaccine co-expressing Yersinia pestis antigens protects against pneumonic plague,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1 2009, pp. 80-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.021
[340] H. Yamanaka, T. Hoyt, X. Yang, S. Golden, C. M. Bosio, K. Crist, T. Becker, M. Maddaloni, and D. W. Pascual, “A nasal interleukin-12 DNA vaccine coexpressing Yersinia pestis F1-V fusion protein confers protection against pneumonic plague,” Infect Immun, Vol. 76, No. 10, Oct 2008, pp. 4564-73. doi:10.1128/IAI.00581-08
[341] J. Hedlund, B. Langer, H. B. Konradsen, and A. Ortqvist, “Negligible adjuvant effect for antibody responses and frequent adverse events associated with IL-12 treatment in humans vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, Oct 12 2001, pp. 164-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00253-5
[342] P.-Y. Perera, S. C. Derrick, K. Kolibab, F. Momoi, M. Yamamoto, S. L. Morris, T. A. Waldmann, and L. P. Perera, “A multi-valent vaccinia virus-based tuberculosis vaccine molecularly adjuvanted with interleukin-15 induces robust immune responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 15, 2009, pp. 2121-2127. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.132
[343] K. Kolibab, A. Yang, S. C. Derrick, T. A. Waldmann, L. P. Perera, and S. L. Morris, “Highly persistent and effective prime/boost regimens against tuberculosis that use a multivalent modified vaccine virus Ankara-based tuberculosis vaccine with interleukin-15 as a molecular adjuvant,” Clin Vaccine Immunol, Vol. 17, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 793-801. doi:10.1128/CVI.00006-10
[344] Y. Sui, Q. Zhu, S. Gagnon, A. Dzutsev, M. Terabe, M. Vaccari, D. Venzon, D. Klinman, W. Strober, B. Kelsall, G. Franchini, I. M. Belyakov, and J. A. Berzofsky, “Innate and adaptive immune correlates of vaccine and adjuvant-induced control of mucosal transmission of SIV in macaques,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Vol. 107, No. 21, May 25 2010, pp. 9843-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0911932107
[345] Z. Yang, L. Wang, H. Wang, X. Shang, W. Niu, J. Li, and Y. Wu, “A novel mimovirus vaccine containing survivin epitope with adjuvant IL-15 induces long-lasting cellular immunity and high antitumor efficiency,” Mol Immunol, Vol. 45, No. 6, Mar 2008, pp. 1674-81. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.10.026
[346] S. A. Calarota, A. Dai, J. N. Trocio, D. B. Weiner, F. Lori, and J. Lisziewicz, “IL-15 as memory T-cell adjuvant for topical HIV-1 DermaVir vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 40, Sep 19 2008, pp. 5188-95. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.067
[347] M. P. Ramanathan, M. A. Kutzler, Y. C. Kuo, J. Yan, H. Liu, V. Shah, A. Bawa, B. Selling, N. Y. Sardesai, J. J. Kim, and D. B. Weiner, “Coimmunization with an optimized IL15 plasmid adjuvant enhances humoral immunity via stimulating B cells induced by genetically engineered DNA vaccines expressing consensus JEV and WNV E DIII,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 32, Jul 9 2009, pp. 4370-80. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.137
[348] R. Nagill and S. Kaur, “Enhanced efficacy and immunogenicity of 78kDa antigen formulated in various adjuvants against murine visceral leishmaniasis,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 23, May 21 2010, pp. 4002-12. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.01.015
[349] R. J. Lechleider, P. M. Arlen, K. Y. Tsang, S. M. Steinberg, J. Yokokawa, V. Cereda, K. Camphausen, J. Schlom, W. L. Dahut, and J. L. Gulley, “Safety and immunologic response of a viral vaccine to prostate- pecific antigen in combination with radiation therapy when metronomic-dose interleukin 2 is used as an adjuvant,” Clin Cancer Res, Vol. 14, No. 16, Aug 15 2008, pp. 5284-91. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5162
[350] W. M. Gwinn, S. M. Kirwan, S. H. Wang, K. A. Ashcraft, N. L. Sparks, C. R. Doil, T. G. Tlusty, L. S. Casey, S. K. Hollingshead, D. E. Briles, R. S. Dondero, A. J. Hickey, W. M. Foster, and H. F. Staats, “Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL-1,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 42, Oct 4 2010, pp. 6901-14. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.006
[351] C. Zhang, B. Wang, and M. Wang, “GM-CSF and IL-2 as adjuvant enhance the immune effect of protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease,” Virol J, Vol. 8, 2011, p. 7. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-7
[352] A. Toubaji, S. Hill, M. Terabe, J. Qian, T. Floyd, R. M. Simpson, J. A. Berzofsky, and S. N. Khleif, “The combination of GM-CSF and IL-2 as local adjuvant shows synergy in enhancing peptide vaccines and provides long term tumor protection,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 31, Aug 1 2007, pp. 5882-91. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.05.040
[353] M. C. Aichinger, M. Ginzler, J. Weghuber, L. Zimmermann, K. Riedl, G. Schütz, E. Nagy, A. von Gabain, R. Schweyen, and T. Henics, “Adjuvating the adjuvant: Facilitated delivery of an immunomodulatory oligonucleotide to TLR9 by a cationic antimicrobial peptide in dendritic cells,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2011, pp. 426-436. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.003
[354] E. M. Agger, I. Rosenkrands, A. W. Olsen, G. Hatch, A. Williams, C. Kritsch, K. Lingnau, A. von Gabain, C. S. Andersen, K. S. Korsholm, and P. Andersen, “Protective immunity to tuberculosis with Ag85B-ESAT-6 in a synthetic cationic adjuvant system IC31,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 26, Jun 29 2006, pp. 5452-60. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.072
[355] K. Riedl, R. Riedl, A. von Gabain, E. Nagy, and K. Lingnau, “The novel adjuvant IC31 strongly improves influenza vaccine-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in young adult and aged mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 27-28, Jun 25 2008, pp. 3461-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.029
[356] C. G. Lee, S. Y. Choi, S. H. Park, K. S. Park, S. H. Ryu, and Y. C. Sung, “The synthetic peptide Trp-Lys- yr-Met-Val-D-Met as a novel adjuvant for DNA vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 38, Sep 7 2005, pp. 4703-10. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.03.051
[357] G. V. Hegde, E. Meyers-Clark, S. S. Joshi, and S. D. Sanderson, “A conformationally-biased, response- elective agonist of C5a acts as a molecular adjuvant by modulating antigen processing and presentation activities of human dendritic cells,” Int Immunopharmacol, Vol. 8, No. 6, Jun 2008, pp. 819-27. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.01.031
[358] E. L. Morgan, B. N. Morgan, E. A. Stein, E. L. Vitrs, M. L. Thoman, S. D. Sanderson, and J. A. Phillips, “Enhancement of in vivo and in vitro immune functions by a conformationally biased, response-selective agonist of human C5a: Implications for a novel adjuvant in vaccine design,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 463-469. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.029
[359] E. L. Morgan, M. L. Thoman, S. D. Sanderson, and J. A. Phillips, “A novel adjuvant for vaccine development in the aged,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 52, 2010, pp. 8275-279. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.008
[360] J. Kindrachuk, H. Jenssen, M. Elliott, R. Townsend, A. Nijnik, S. F. Lee, V. Gerdts, L. A. Babiuk, S. A. Halperin, and R. E. Hancock, “A novel vaccine adjuvant comprised of a synthetic innate defence regulator peptide and CpG oligonucleotide links innate and adaptive immunity,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 34, Jul 23 2009, pp. 4662-71. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.094
[361] E. Scruten, J. Kovacs-Nolan, P. J. Griebel, L. Latimer, J. Kindrachuk, A. Potter, L. A. Babiuk, S. v. D. L.-v. d. Hurk, and S. Napper, “Retro-inversion enhances the adjuvant and CpG co-adjuvant activity of host defence peptide Bac2A,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 17, 2010, pp. 2945-2956. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.015
[362] J. Turanek, M. Ledvina, A. Kasna, A. Vacek, V. Hribalova, J. Krejci, and A. D. Miller, “Liposomal preparations of muramyl glycopeptides as immunomodulators and adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-90-1.
[363] R. Segura-Velazquez, A. Perez-Torres, G. Rosas, A. Toledo, M. Restelli, E. Acosta, R. Corral, F. Rosetti, G. Fragoso, S. Grinstein, and E. Sciutto, “A novel synthetic adjuvant effectively enhances the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 8, Feb 20 2006, pp. 1073-80. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.014
[364] Y. Charoenvit, N. Goel, M. Whelan, K. S. Rosenthal, and D. H. Zimmerman, “CEL-1000--a peptide with adjuvant activity for Th1 immune responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 19, Jun 23 2004, pp. 2368-73. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.11.062
[365] P. D. Becker, S. Fiorentini, C. Link, G. Tosti, T. Ebensen, A. Caruso, and C. A. Guzman, “The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 can be efficiently delivered by intranasal route in mice using the TLR 2/6 agonist MALP-2 as mucosal adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 25, Jun 19 2006, pp. 5269-76. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.008
[366] S. Borsutzky, T. Ebensen, C. Link, P. D. Becker, V. Fiorelli, A. Cafaro, B. Ensoli, and C. A. Guzman, “Efficient systemic and mucosal responses against the HIV-1 Tat protein by prime/boost vaccination using the lipopeptide MALP-2 as adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 12, Mar 15 2006, pp. 2049-56. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.11.025
[367] A. Cataldi, T. Yevsa, D. A. Vilte, K. Schulze, M. Castro- arodi, M. Larzabal, C. Ibarra, E. C. Mercado, and C. A. Guzman, “Efficient immune responses against Intimin and EspB of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli after intranasal vaccination using the TLR2/6 agonist MALP-2 as adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 44, Oct 16 2008, pp. 5662-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.027
[368] J. K. Actor, S. A. Hwang, and M. L. Kruzel, “Lactoferrin as a natural immune modulator,” Curr Pharm Des, Vol. 15, No. 17, 2009, pp. 1956-73. doi:10.2174/138161209788453202
[369] S. A. Hwang and J. K. Actor, “Lactoferrin modulation of BCG-infected dendritic cell functions,” Int Immunol, Vol. 21, No. 10, Oct 2009, pp. 1185-97. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxp084
[370] S. A. Hwang, K. M. Wilk, M. Budnicka, M. Olsen, Y. A. Bangale, R. L. Hunter, M. L. Kruzel, and J. K. Actor, “Lactoferrin enhanced efficacy of the BCG vaccine to generate host protective responses against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 37-38, Sep 17 2007, pp. 6730-43. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.005
[371] S. A. Hwang, K. Wilk, M. L. Kruzel, and J. K. Actor, “A novel recombinant human lactoferrin augments the BCG vaccine and protects alveolar integrity upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 23, May 18 2009, pp. 3026-34. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.036
[372] T. A. Barr, J. Carlring, and A. W. Heath, “CD40 antibody as a potent immunological adjuvant: CD40 antibody provides the CD40 signal to B cells, but does not substitute for T cell help in responses to TD antigens,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 26, May 16 2005, pp. 3477-82. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.12.025
[373] J. Carlring, T. A. Barr, A. L. McCormick, and A. W. Heath, “CD40 antibody as an adjuvant induces enhanced T cell responses,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 25-26, Sep 3 2004, pp. 3323-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.02.043
[374] J. Liu, Q. Yu, G. W. Stone, F. Y. Yue, N. Ngai, R. B. Jones, R. S. Kornbluth, and M. A. Ostrowski, “CD40L expressed from the canarypox vector, ALVAC, can boost immunogenicity of HIV-1 canarypox vaccine in mice and enhance the in vitro expansion of viral specific CD8+ T cell memory responses from HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 32, Jul 29 2008, pp. 4062-72. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.018
[375] T. Barr, J. Carlring, C. Hatzifoti, and A. W. Heath, “Antibodies against cell surface antigens as very potent immunological adjuvants,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-20-1.
[376] K. Dorgham, V. Abadie, M. Iga, O. Hartley, G. Gorochov, and B. Combadiere, “Engineered CCR5 superagonist chemokine as adjuvant in anti-tumor DNA vaccination,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 26, Jun 19 2008, pp. 3252-60. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.003
[377] C. E. Hioe, M. L. Visciano, R. Kumar, J. Liu, E. A. Mack, R. E. Simon, D. N. Levy, and M. Tuen, “The use of immune complex vaccines to enhance antibody responses against neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope gp120,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 352-360. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.040
[378] N. Pakravan, S. M. Hashemi, and Z. M. Hassan, “Adjuvant activity of GP96 C-terminal domain towards Her2/neu DNA vaccine is fusion direction-dependent,” Cell Stress Chaperones, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 2011, pp. 41-8. doi:10.1007/s12192-010-0219-5
[379] P. O. Ilyinskii, G. Thoidis, M. Y. Sherman, and A. Shneider, “Adjuvant potential of aggregate-forming polyglutamine domains,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 26, Jun 19 2008, pp. 3223-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.03.078
[380] B. Jin, T. Sun, X. H. Yu, C. Q. Liu, Y. X. Yang, P. Lu, S. F. Fu, H. B. Qiu, and A. E. Yeo, “Immunomodulatory effects of dsRNA and its potential as vaccine adjuvant,” J Biomed Biotechnol, Vol. 2010, 2010, p. 690438. doi:10.1155/2010/690438
[381] Y. F. Lau, L. H. Tang, A. W. McCall, E. E. Ooi, and K. Subbarao, “An adjuvant for the induction of potent, protective humoral responses to an H5N1 influenza virus vaccine with antigen-sparing effect in mice,” J Virol, Vol. 84, No. 17, Sep 2010, pp. 8639-49. doi:10.1128/JVI.00596-10
[382] M. L. Salem, S. A. El-Naggar, A. Kadima, W. E. Gillanders, and D. J. Cole, “The adjuvant effects of the toll-like receptor 3 ligand polyinosinic-cytidylic acid poly (I:C) on antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses are partially dependent on NK cells with the induction of a beneficial cytokine milieu,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 24, Jun 12 2006, pp. 5119-32. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.04.010
[383] B. Salaun, M. Greutert, and P. Romero, “Toll-like receptor 3 is necessary for dsRNA adjuvant effects,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1841-1847. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.044
[384] H. Ezoe, Y. Akeda, Z. Piao, T. Aoshi, S. Koyama, T. Tanimoto, K. J. Ishii, and K. Oishi, “Intranasal vaccination with pneumococcal surface protein A plus poly(I:C) protects against secondary pneumococcal pneumonia in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1754-1761. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.117
[385] A. Ainai, T. Ichinohe, S. Tamura, T. Kurata, T. Sata, M. Tashiro, and H. Hasegawa, “Zymosan enhances the mucosal adjuvant activity of poly(I:C) in a nasal influenza vaccine,” J Med Virol, Vol. 82, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 476-84. doi:10.1002/jmv.21694
[386] T. Ichinohe, A. Ainai, M. Tashiro, T. Sata, and H. Hasegawa, “PolyI:polyC12U adjuvant-combined intranasal vaccine protects mice against highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus variants,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 45, 2009, pp. 6276-6279. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.074
[387] T. Ichinohe, A. Ainai, Y. Ami, N. Nagata, N. Iwata, A. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzaki, T. Odagiri, M. Tashiro, H. Takahashi, D. R. Strayer, W. A. Carter, J. Chiba, S. Tamura, T. Sata, T. Kurata, and H. Hasegawa, “Intranasal administration of adjuvant-combined vaccine protects monkeys from challenge with the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus,” J Med Virol, Vol. 82, No. 10, Oct 2010, pp. 1754-61. doi:10.1002/jmv.21824
[388] K. Tewari, B. J. Flynn, S. B. Boscardin, K. Kastenmueller, A. M. Salazar, C. A. Anderson, V. Soundarapandian, A. Ahumada, T. Keler, S. L. Hoffman, M. C. Nussenzweig, R. M. Steinman, and R. A. Seder, “Poly(I:C) is an effective adjuvant for antibody and multi-functional CD4+T cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and alphaDEC-CSP in non human primates,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 45, Oct 21 2010, pp. 7256-66. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.098
[389] K. Oda, Y. Sato, S. Katayama, A. Ito, and T. Ohgitani, “Separation and characterization of adjuvant oligosaccharide oleate ester derived from product mixture of mannitol-oleic acid esterification,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 21-22, Jul 29 2004, pp. 2812-21. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.047
[390] S. Ascarateil and L. Dupuis, “Surfactants in vaccine adjuvants: description and perspectives,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-83-5.
[391] L. A. Hilgers and A. G. Blom, “Sucrose fatty acid sulphate esters as novel vaccine adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 24 Suppl 2, Apr 12 2006, pp. S2-81-2.
[392] J. M. Katz, X. Lu, C. W. Todd, and M. J. Newman, “A nonionic block co-polymer adjuvant (CRL1005) enhances the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine in young and aged mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 21, Apr 28 2000, pp. 2177-87. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00022-0
[393] R. K. Evans, D. M. Zhu, D. R. Casimiro, D. K. Nawrocki, H. Mach, R. D. Troutman, A. Tang, S. Wu, S. Chin, C. Ahn, L. A. Isopi, D. M. Williams, Z. Xu, J. W. Shiver, and D. B. Volkin, “Characterization and biological evaluation of a microparticle adjuvant formulation for plasmid DNA vaccines,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 93, No. 7, Jul 2004, pp. 1924-39. doi:10.1002/jps.20112
[394] T. Stegmann, T. Kamphuis, T. Meijerhof, E. Goud, A. de Haan, and J. Wilschut, “Lipopeptide-adjuvanted respiratory syncytial virus virosomes: A safe and immunogenic non-replicating vaccine formulation,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 34, 2010, pp. 5543-5550. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.041
[395] C. Klinguer, A. Beck, P. De-Lys, M. C. Bussat, A. Blaecke, F. Derouet, J. Y. Bonnefoy, T. N. Nguyen, N. Corvaia, and D. Velin, “Lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt acts as a mucosal adjuvant when co-administered by the nasal route with vaccine antigens,” Vaccine, Vol. 19, No. 30, Jul 20 2001, pp. 4236-44. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00156-6
[396] C. Klinguer-Hamour, C. Libon, H. Plotnicky-Gilquin, M. C. Bussat, L. Revy, T. Nguyen, J. Y. Bonnefoy, N. Corvaia, and A. Beck, “DDA adjuvant induces a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response when associated with BBG2Na, a respiratory syncytial virus potential vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 21-22, Jun 21 2002, pp. 2743-51. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00193-7
[397] L. E. Davidson, A. M. Fiorino, D. R. Snydman, and P. L. Hibberd, “Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial,” Eur J Clin Nutr, Vol. 65, No. 4, Apr 2011, pp. 501-7. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.289
[398] V. Saluja, J. P. Amorij, M. L. van Roosmalen, K. Leenhouts, A. Huckriede, W. L. Hinrichs, and H. W. Frijlink, “Intranasal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulated with GEM particles as an adjuvant,” AAPS J, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 2010, pp. 109-16. doi:10.1208/s12248-009-9168-2
[399] J. M. Grange, O. Bottasso, C. A. Stanford, and J. L. Stanford, “The use of mycobacterial adjuvant-based agents for immunotherapy of cancer,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 39, Sep 15 2008, pp. 4984-90. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.092
[400] B. Jalilian, A. R. Omar, M. H. Bejo, N. B. Alitheen, M. Rasoli, and S. Matsumoto, “Development of avian influenza virus H5 DNA vaccine and MDP-1 gene of Mycobacterium bovis as genetic adjuvant,” Genet Vaccines Ther, Vol. 8, 2010, p. 4.
[401] L. O. Moreira, A. M. Smith, A. A. DeFreitas, J. E. Qualls, K. C. El Kasmi, and P. J. Murray, “Modulation of adaptive immunity by different adjuvant-antigen combinations in mice lacking Nod2,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 46, Oct 29 2008, pp. 5808-13. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.038
[402] B. Halassy, M. Krstanovic, R. Frkanec, and J. Tomasic, “Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 9-10, Feb 14 2003, pp. 971-6. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00547-9
[403] B. Halassy Spoljar, T. Cimbora, I. Hanzl-Dujmovic, B. Dojnovic, A. Sabioncello, M. Krstanovic, and J. Tomasic, “Influence of adjuvant-active peptidoglycan monomer on specific T cell responses in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 29-30, Oct 4 2002, pp. 3543-50. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00336-5
[404] E. Meshcheryakova, E. Makarov, D. Philpott, T. Andronova, and V. Ivanov, “Evidence for correlation between the intensities of adjuvant effects and NOD2 activation by monomeric, dimeric and lipophylic derivatives of N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl peptides,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 23, Jun 6 2007, pp. 4515-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.04.006
[405] A. D. Ogunniyi, J. C. Paton, A. C. Kirby, J. A. McCullers, J. Cook, M. Hyodo, Y. Hayakawa, and D. K. Karaolis, “c-di-GMP is an effective immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant against pneumococcal infection,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 36, Aug 26 2008, pp. 4676-85. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.099
[406] W. Chen, R. KuoLee, and H. Yan, “The potential of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) as an effective vaccine adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 18, 2010, pp. 3080-3085. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.081
[407] T. Ebensen, K. Schulze, P. Riese, C. Link, M. Morr, and C. A. Guzman, “The bacterial second messenger cyclic diGMP exhibits potent adjuvant properties,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 8, Feb 9 2007, pp. 1464-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.10.033
[408] J.-M. Huang, H. A. Hong, H. Van Tong, T. H. Hoang, A. Brisson, and S. M. Cutting, “Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1021-1030. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.127
[409] A. G. Barnes, V. Cerovic, P. S. Hobson, and L. S. Klavinskis, “Bacillus subtilis spores: a novel microparticle adjuvant which can instruct a balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response to specific antigen,” Eur J Immunol, Vol. 37, No. 6, Jun 2007, pp. 1538-47. doi:10.1002/eji.200636875
[410] Y. Adar, Y. Singer, R. Levi, E. Tzehoval, S. Perk, C. Banet-Noach, S. Nagar, R. Arnon, and T. Ben-Yedidia, “A universal epitope-based influenza vaccine and its efficacy against H5N1,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 15, 2009, pp. 2099-2107. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.011
[411] L. Song, Y. Zhang, N. E. Yun, A. L. Poussard, J. N. Smith, J. K. Smith, V. Borisevich, J. J. Linde, M. A. Zacks, H. Li, U. Kavita, L. Reiserova, X. Liu, K. Dumuren, B. Balasubramanian, B. Weaver, J. Parent, S. Umlauf, G. Liu, J. Huleatt, L. Tussey, and S. Paessler, “Superior efficacy of a recombinant flagellin:H5N1 HA globular head vaccine is determined by the placement of the globular head within flagellin,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 42, 2009, pp. 5875-5884. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.060
[412] D. Johnston and J. C. Bystryn, “Topical imiquimod is a potent adjuvant to a weakly-immunogenic protein prototype vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 11, Mar 10 2006, pp. 1958-65. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.10.045
[413] M. Igartua and J. L. Pedraz, “Topical resiquimod: a promising adjuvant for vaccine development?,” Expert Rev Vaccines, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan 2010, pp. 23-7. doi:10.1586/erv.09.135
[414] J. Du, Z. Wu, S. Ren, Y. Wei, M. Gao, G. J. Randolph, and C. Qu, “TLR8 agonists stimulate newly recruited monocyte-derived cells into potent APCs that enhance HBsAg immunogenicity,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 38, 2010, pp. 6273-6281. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.117
[415] N. H. Jazani, M. Karimzad, E. Mazloomi, M. Sohrabpour, Z. M. Hassan, H. Ghasemnejad, S. Roshan-Milani, and S. Shahabi, “Evaluation of the adjuvant activity of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in combination with heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes vaccine,” Microbes Infect, Vol. 12, No. 5, May 2010, pp. 382-8. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2010.02.001
[416] W. Yan, W. C. Chen, Z. Liu, and L. Huang, “Bryostatin-I: a dendritic cell stimulator for chemokines induction and a promising adjuvant for a peptide based cancer vaccine,” Cytokine, Vol. 52, No. 3, Dec 2010, pp. 238-44. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2010.08.010
[417] W. J. Morrow, Y. W. Yang, and N. A. Sheikh, “Immunobiology of the Tomatine adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 19, Jun 23 2004, pp. 2380-4. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.022
[418] L. Yuan, L. Wu, J. Chen, Q. Wu, and S. Hu, “Paclitaxel acts as an adjuvant to promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced by ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 27, 2010, pp. 4402-4410. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.046
[419] A. Khajuria, A. Gupta, S. Singh, F. Malik, J. Singh, K. A. Suri, N. K. Satti, G. N. Qazi, V. K. Srinivas, Gopinathan, and K. Ella, “RLJ-NE-299A: a new plant based vaccine adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 14, Mar 30 2007, pp. 2706-15. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.06.036
[420] H. M. S. Kumar, P. P. Singh, N. A. Qazi, J. Srinivas, F. Malik, T. Sidiq, A. Gupta, A. Khajuria, K. A. Suri, N. K. Satti, and G. N. Qazi, “Development of novel lipidated analogs of picroside as vaccine adjuvants: Acylated analogs of picroside-II elicit strong Th1 and Th2 response to ovalbumin in mice,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 52, 2010, pp. 8327-8337. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.062
[421] E. I. Rigopoulou, W. G. Abbott, R. Williams, and N. V. Naoumov, “Direct evidence for immunomodulatory properties of ribavirin on T-cell reactivity to hepatitis C virus,” Antiviral Res, Vol. 75, No. 1, Jul 2007, pp. 36-42. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.11.008
[422] E. Y. Enioutina, D. Visic, and R. A. Daynes, “The induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to antigen-adjuvant compositions administered into the skin: alterations in the migratory properties of dendritic cells appears to be important for stimulating mucosal immunity,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 24, Jun 1 2000, pp. 2753-67. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00059-1
[423] E. Y. Enioutina, D. Visic, Z. A. McGee, and R. A. Daynes, “The induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses following the subcutaneous immunization of mature adult mice: characterization of the antibodies in mucosal secretions of animals immunized with antigen formulations containing a vitamin D3 adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 17, No. 23-24, Aug 6 1999, pp. 3050-64. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00147-4
[424] D. Jiang, G. S. Premachandra, C. Johnston, and S. L. Hem, “Structure and adsorption properties of commercial calcium phosphate adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 5, Dec 16 2004, pp. 693-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.06.029
[425] S. Sakure, V. D. Negi, S. K. Mitra, K. S. Nandakumar, and D. Chakravortty, “Vaccine with herbal adjuvant--a better cocktail to combat the infection,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 27-28, Jun 25 2008, pp. 3387-8. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.060
[426] X. Yang, S. Huang, J. Chen, N. Song, L. Wang, Z. Zhang, G. Deng, H. Zheng, X.-Q. Zhu, and F. Lu, “Evaluation of the adjuvant properties of Astragalus membranaceus and Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI in the immune protection induced by UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii in mouse models,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2010, pp. 737-743. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.065
[427] P. V. Licciardi and J. R. Underwood, “Identification of a novel vaccine adjuvant that stimulates and maintains diphtheria toxoid immunity,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 22, 2010, pp. 3865-3873. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.073
[428] J. Li, A. V. King, S. L. Stickel, K. E. Burgin, X. Zhang, T. E. Wagner, and Y. Wei, “Whole tumor cell vaccine with irradiated S180 cells as adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 4, Nov 21 2009, pp. 558-64. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.014
[429] J. Li, A. V. King, S. L. Stickel, K. E. Burgin, X. Zhang, T. E. Wagner, and Y. Wei, “Whole tumor cell vaccine with irradiated S180 cells as adjuvant,” Vaccine, Nov 21 2008,
[430] X. Chen, P. Kim, B. Farinelli, A. Doukas, S. H. Yun, J. A. Gelfand, R. R. Anderson, and M. X. Wu, “A novel laser vaccine adjuvant increases the motility of antigen presenting cells,” PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 10, 2010, p. e13776. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013776
[431] T. F. Schwarz, M. Spaczynski, A. Schneider, J. Wysocki, A. Galaj, P. Perona, S. Poncelet, T. Zahaf, K. Hardt, D. Descamps, and G. Dubin, “Immunogenicity and tolerability of an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted prophylactic cervical cancer vaccine in women aged 15-55 years,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jan 22 2009, pp. 581-587. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.088
[432] F. Ambrosch, G. Wiedermann, M. Kundi, G. Leroux-oels, I. Desombere, N. Garcon, C. Thiriart, M. Slaoui, and S. Thoelen, “A hepatitis B vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant system,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 20, Apr 14 2000, pp. 2095-101. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00566-6
[433] T. Sugai, M. Mori, M. Nakazawa, M. Ichino, T. Naruto, N. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, M. Minami, and S. Yokota, “A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 46-47, Nov 16 2005, pp. 5450-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.09.041
[434] F. Wu, X. Y. Yuan, J. Li, and Y. H. Chen, “The co- dministration of CpG-ODN influenced protective activity of influenza M2e vaccine,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 32, Jul 9 2009, pp. 4320-4. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.075
[435] S. Rojo-Montejo, E. Collantes-Fernandez, J. Regidor- errillo, A. Rodriguez-Bertos, A. Prenafeta, M. Gomez- autista, and L. M. Ortega-Mora, “Influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against Neospora caninum infection in mice,” Vet Parasitol, Vol. 175, No. 3-4, Feb 10 2011, pp. 220-9. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.10.028
[436] N. H. Jazani, S. Parsania, M. Sohrabpour, E. Mazloomi, M. Karimzad, and S. Shahabi, “Naloxone and alum synergistically augment adjuvant activities of each other in a mouse vaccine model of Salmonella typhimurium infection,” Immunobiology, Oct 27 2010.
[437] N. H. Jazani, M. Sohrabpour, E. Mazloomi, and S. Shahabi, “A novel adjuvant, a mixture of alum and the general opioid antagonist naloxone, elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses for heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium vaccine,” FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, Vol. 61, No. 1, Feb 2011, pp. 54-62. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2010.00747.x
[438] S. M. Bal, S. Hortensius, Z. Ding, W. Jiskoot, and J. A. Bouwstra, “Co-encapsulation of antigen and Toll-like receptor ligand in cationic liposomes affects the quality of the immune response in mice after intradermal vaccination,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1045- 052. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.061
[439] A. Joseph, I. Louria-Hayon, A. Plis-Finarov, E. Zeira, Z. Zakay-Rones, E. Raz, T. Hayashi, K. Takabayashi, Y. Barenholz, and E. Kedar, “Liposomal immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS-ODN): an efficient parenteral and mucosal adjuvant for influenza and hepatitis B vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 20, No. 27-28, Sep 10 2002, pp. 3342-54. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00295-5
[440] S. de Jong, G. Chikh, L. Sekirov, S. Raney, S. Semple, S. Klimuk, N. Yuan, M. Hope, P. Cullis, and Y. Tam, “Encapsulation in liposomal nanoparticles enhances the immunostimulatory, adjuvant and anti-tumor activity of subcutaneously administered CpG ODN,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 56, No. 8, Aug 2007, pp. 1251-64. doi:10.1007/s00262-006-0276-x
[441] D. Johnston, B. Zaidi, and J. C. Bystryn, “TLR7 imidazoquinoline ligand 3M-019 is a potent adjuvant for pure protein prototype vaccines,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 56, No. 8, Aug 2007, pp. 1133-41. doi:10.1007/s00262-006-0262-3
[442] J. Myschik, F. Eberhardt, T. Rades, and S. Hook, “Immunostimulatory biodegradable implants containing the adjuvant Quil-A-Part I: Physicochemical characterisation,” J Drug Target, Vol. 16, No. 3, Apr 2008, pp. 213-23.
[443] M. Rao, K. K. Peachman, Q. Li, G. R. Matyas, S. B. Shivachandra, R. Borschel, V. I. Morthole, C. Fernandez- rada, C. R. Alving, and V. B. Rao, “Highly effective generic adjuvant systems for orphan or poverty-related vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2011, pp. 873-877. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.049
[444] D. I. Bernstein, N. Farley, F. J. Bravo, J. Earwood, M. McNeal, J. Fairman, and R. Cardin, “The adjuvant CLDC increases protection of a herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D vaccine in guinea pigs,” Vaccine, Vol. 28, No. 21, 2010, pp. 3748-3753. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.025
[445] M. G. Chaitra, R. Nayak, and M. S. Shaila, “Modulation of immune responses in mice to recombinant antigens from PE and PPE families of proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Ribi adjuvant,” Vaccine, Vol. 25, No. 41, Oct 10 2007, pp. 7168-76. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.026
[446] B. C. Baudner, M. M. Giuliani, J. C. Verhoef, R. Rappuoli, H. E. Junginger, and G. D. Giudice, “The concomitant use of the LTK63 mucosal adjuvant and of chitosan-based delivery system enhances the immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally administered vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 25-26, Sep 8 2003, pp. 3837-44. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00305-0
[447] D. T. O'Hagan, M. Ugozzoli, J. Barackman, M. Singh, J. Kazzaz, K. Higgins, T. C. Vancott, and G. Ott, “Microparticles in MF59, a potent adjuvant combination for a recombinant protein vaccine against HIV-1,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 17, Mar 6 2000, pp. 1793-801. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00522-8
[448] T. Jones, S. Cyr, F. Allard, N. Bellerose, G. H. Lowell, and D. S. Burt, “Protollin: a novel adjuvant for intranasal vaccines,” Vaccine, Vol. 22, No. 27-28, Sep 9 2004, pp. 3691-7. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.03.035
[449] W. R. Santos, V. M. de Lima, E. P. de Souza, R. R. Bernardo, M. Palatnik, and C. B. Palatnik de Sousa, “Saponins, IL12 and BCG adjuvant in the FML-vaccine formulation against murine visceral leishmaniasis,” Vaccine, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, Nov 22 2002, pp. 30-43. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00444-9
[450] Z. Cui and L. Huang, “Liposome-polycation-DNA (LPD) particle as a carrier and adjuvant for protein-based vaccines: therapeutic effect against cervical cancer,” Cancer Immunol Immunother, Vol. 54, No. 12, Dec 2005, pp. 1180-90. doi:10.1007/s00262-005-0685-2
[451] Y. Li, K. Svehla, N. L. Mathy, G. Voss, J. R. Mascola, and R. Wyatt, “Characterization of antibody responses elicited by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolate trimeric and monomeric envelope glycoproteins in selected adjuvants,” J Virol, Vol. 80, No. 3, Feb 2006, pp. 1414-26. doi:10.1128/JVI.80.3.1414-1426.2006
[452] M. E. Polhemus, A. J. Magill, J. F. Cummings, K. E. Kester, C. F. Ockenhouse, D. E. Lanar, S. Dutta, A. Barbosa, L. Soisson, C. L. Diggs, S. A. Robinson, J. D. Haynes, V. A. Stewart, L. A. Ware, C. Brando, U. Krzych, R. A. Bowden, J. D. Cohen, M. C. Dubois, O. Ofori- nyinam, E. De-Kock, W. R. Ballou, and D. G. Heppner, Jr., “Phase I dose escalation safety and immunogenicity trial of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane protein (AMA-1) FMP2.1, adjuvanted with AS02A, in malaria-naive adults at the Walter R
[453] C. L. Tielemans, J. Vlasak, D. Kosa, J.-M. Billiouw, G. A. Verpooten, I. Mezei, M. Ryba, P. C. Peeters, O. Mat, M. Y. Jadoul, V. Polakovic, M. Dhaene, S. Treille, S. O. Kuriyakose, M. Leyssen, S. A. Houard, and M. Surquin, “Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational AS02v- djuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in patients with renal insufficiency who failed to respond or to maintain antibody levels after prior vaccination: Results of two open, randomized, comparative trials,” Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2011, p
[454] V. A. Stewart, S. M. McGrath, D. S. Walsh, S. Davis, A. S. Hess, L. A. Ware, K. E. Kester, J. F. Cummings, J. R. Burge, G. Voss, M. Delchambre, N. Garcon, D. B. Tang, J. D. Cohen, and D. G. Heppner, Jr., “Pre-clinical evaluation of new adjuvant formulations to improve the immunogenicity of the malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A,” Vaccine, Vol. 24, No. 42-43, Oct 30 2006, pp. 6483-92. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.06.033
[455] P. Vandepapeliere, B. Rehermann, M. Koutsoukos, P. Moris, N. Garcon, M. Wettendorff, and G. Leroux-Roels, “Potent enhancement of cellular and humoral immune responses against recombinant hepatitis B antigens using AS02A adjuvant in healthy adults,” Vaccine, Vol. 23, No. 20, Apr 8 2005, pp. 2591-601. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.034
[456] K. E. Kester, J. F. Cummings, O. Ofori-Anyinam, C. F. Ockenhouse, U. Krzych, P. Moris, R. Schwenk, R. A. Nielsen, Z. Debebe, E. Pinelis, L. Juompan, J. Williams, M. Dowler, V. A. Stewart, R. A. Wirtz, M. C. Dubois, M. Lievens, J. Cohen, W. R. Ballou, and D. G. Heppner, Jr., “Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2a Trial of Falciparum Malaria Vaccines RTS,S/AS01B and RTS, /AS02A in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Efficacy, and Immunologic Associates of Protection,” J Infect Dis, Vol. 200, No. 3, Aug 1 2009, pp. 3
[457] P. Vandepapeliere, Y. Horsmans, P. Moris, M. Van Mechelen, M. Janssens, M. Koutsoukos, P. Van Belle, F. Clement, E. Hanon, M. Wettendorff, N. Garcon, and G. Leroux-Roels, “Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers,” Vaccine, Vol. 26, No. 10, Mar 4 2008, pp. 1375-86. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.12.038
[458] J. F. Cummings, M. D. Spring, R. J. Schwenk, C. F. Ockenhouse, K. E. Kester, M. E. Polhemus, D. S. Walsh, I.-K. Yoon, C. Prosperi, L. Y. Juompan, D. E. Lanar, U. Krzych, B. T. Hall, L. A. Ware, V. A. Stewart, J. Williams, M. Dowler, R. K. Nielsen, C. J. Hillier, B. K. Giersing, F. Dubovsky, E. Malkin, K. Tucker, M.-C. Dubois, J. D. Cohen, W. R. Ballou, and D. G. H. Jr, “Recombinant Liver Stage Antigen-1 (LSA-1) formulated with AS01 or AS02 is safe, elicits high titer antibody and induces IFN-[gamma]/IL-2
[459] W. Huisman, B. E. Martina, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, R. A. Gruters, and A. D. Osterhaus, “Vaccine-induced enhancement of viral infections,” Vaccine, Vol. 27, No. 4, Jan 22 2009, pp. 505-12. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.087
[460] C. Coban, M. Yagi, K. Ohata, Y. Igari, T. Tsukui, T. Horii, K. J. Ishii, and S. Akira, “The malarial metabolite hemozoin and its potential use as a vaccine adjuvant,” Allergol Int, Vol. 59, No. 2, Jun 2010, pp. 115-24. doi:10.2332/allergolint.10-RAI-0194
[461] R. E. Flarend, S. L. Hem, J. L. White, D. Elmore, M. A. Suckow, A. C. Rudy, and E. A. Dandashli, “In vivo absorption of aluminium-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al,” Vaccine, Vol. 15, No. 12-13, Aug-Sep 1997, pp. 1314-8. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00041-8
[462] L. S. Burrell, J. L. White, and S. L. Hem, “Stability of aluminium-containing adjuvants during aging at room temperature,” Vaccine, Vol. 18, No. 21, Apr 28 2000, pp. 2188-92. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00031-1
[463] J. Klein, M. Ushio, L. S. Burrell, B. Wenslow, and S. L. Hem, “Analysis of aluminum hydroxyphosphate vaccine adjuvants by (27)Al MAS NMR,” J Pharm Sci, Vol. 89, No. 3, Mar 2000, pp. 311-21. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6017(200003)89:3<311::AID-JPS3>3.0.CO;2-8

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.