Ability of the Mini-Mental State Examination to Predict the Neuropsychological Performance of Hispanic Patients with Minor Neurocognitive Disorder


The Mini-Mental State Examination is perhaps the most frequently used instrument to determine level of cognitive functioning. However, while it is cited in a wide range of research studies, it is not necessarily the focus of study itself. The purpose of this study was to establish the ability of the MMSE total score to predict the level of neurocognitive functioning of two samples of Hispanic patients with minor neurocognitive disorder in a battery of neuropsychological tests. Two samples of patients, one obtained in 2009 and a second one in 2013 were grouped into high scoring and low scoring in the MMSE. The results showed that the MMSE total score was predictive of the performance of both samples in neuropsychological tests designed to assess attention, language, non-verbal memory, and visual-constructional praxis. Scores in an auditory verbal memory task was not predicted by the total score of the MMSE. It was concluded that the MMSE could serve as a very adequate instrument to predict neurocognitive functioning in patients with memory complaints. The consistency of findings between the two independent samples gave further credence to this assertion.

Share and Cite:

Pino, J. , Bassi, N. , Armas, J. & Dieguez, N. (2014). Ability of the Mini-Mental State Examination to Predict the Neuropsychological Performance of Hispanic Patients with Minor Neurocognitive Disorder. Psychology, 5, 340-348. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.55044.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Adam, S., Van der Linden, M., Collette, F., Lemauvais, L., & Salmon, E. (2005). Further Exploration of Controlled and Automatic Memory Processes in Early Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychology, 19, 420-427.
[2] Alagiakrishnan, K., Zhao, N., Mereu, L., Senior, P., & Senthilselvan, A. (2013). Montreal Cognitive Assessment Is Superior to Standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam in Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. BioMedical Research International, 2013, 1-5.
[3] Alencar, R. C., Cobas, R. A., & Gomes, M. B. (2010). Assessment of Cognitive Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes through the Mini-Mental Status Examination: A Cross-Sectional Study. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 2, 1-6.
[4] Alhola, P., Tallus, M., Kilmala, M., Portin, R., & Polo-Kamola, P. (2005). Sleep Deprivation, Cognitive Performance, and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Women. Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 12, 149-155.
[5] American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
[6] Bartzokis, G., Lu, P. H., Geschwind, D. H., Edwards, N., Mintz, J., & Cummings, J. L. (2006). Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Age-Related Myelin Breakdown in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Cognitive Decline and Dementia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 63-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.1.63
[7] Benton, A. L. (1974). Revised Visual Retention Test (4th ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.
[8] Benton, A. L. (2002). Test de Retención Visual de Benton: Manual (5th ed.). Madrid: TEA Ediciones, S.A.
[9] Boyle, P. A., Wilson, R. S., Aggarwal, N. T., Arvanitakis, Z., Kelly, J., Bienias, J. L., & Bennert, D. A. (2005). Parkinsonian Signs in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Neurology, 65, 1901-1908.
[10] Buckingham, D. N., Mackor, K. M., Miller, R. M., Pullam, N. N., & Molloy, K. N. (2013). Comparing the Cognitive Screening Tools: MMSE and SLUMS. PURE Insights, 2, Article 3.
[11] Bugnicourt, J. M., Godefroy, O., Chillon, J. M., Choukroun, G., & Massy, Z. A. (2013). Cognitive Disorders and Dementia in CKD: The Neglected Kidney-Brain Axis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 24, 1-11.
[12] Caffarra, P., Gardini, S., Dieci, F., Copelli, S., Maset, L., Concari, L., Farina, L., & Grossi, E. (2013). The Qualitative Scoring MMSE Pentagon Test (QSPT): A New Method for Differentiating Dementia with Lewy Body from Alzheimer’s Disease. Behavioural Neurology, 27, 213-220.
[13] Cameron, J., Worrall-Carter, L., Page, K., Stewart, S., & Ski, C. F. (2012). Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Heart Failure: Montreal Cognitive Assessment versus Mini Mental State Exam. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474515111435606
[14] Daniels, T. B., Brown, P. D., Felten, S. J., Wu, W., Buckner, J. C., Arusell, R. M., Curran, W. J.. Abrams, R. A., Schiff, D., & Shaw, E. G. (2011). Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults with Lowgrade Glioma: A Report Utilizing Intergroup 86-72-51. International Journal of Radiation Oncology and Biological Physics, 81, 218-224.
[15] Dickerson, B. C., Salat, D. H., Greve, D. N., Chua, E. F., Rand-Giovannetti, E., Rentz, D. M., Bertram, L., Mullin, K., Tanzi, R. E., Blacker, D., Albert, M. S., & Sperling, R. A. (2005). Increased Hippocampal Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment Compared to Normal Aging and AD. Neurology, 65, 404-411.
[16] Elbaz, A., Ripert, M., Tavernier, B., Février, B., ureik, M., Gariépy, J., Alpérovich, A., & Tzourio, C. (2005). Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Carotid Plaques, and Walking Speed. Stroke, 36, 2198-2202.
[17] Faux, N. G., Ritchieb, C. W., Gunna, A., Rembacha, A., Tsatsanisa, A., Bedod, J., Harrisone, J., Lannfeltf, L., Blennowg, K., Zetterbergg, H., Ingelssonf, M., Masters, C. I., Tanzih, R. E., Cummings, J. L., Herdjm, C. M., & Busha, A. I. (2010). PBT2 Rapidly Improves Cognition in Alzheimer’s Disease: Additional Phase II Analyses. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 20, 509-516.
[18] Festa, E. K., Insler, R. Z., Salmon, D. P., Paxton, J., Hamilton, J. M., & Heindel, W. C. (2005). Neocortical Desconnectivity Disrupts Sensory Integration en Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychology, 19, 728-738.
[19] Fjærtoft, H., Rohweder, G., & Indredavik, B. (2011). Stroke Unit Care Combined with Early Supported Discharge Improves 5-Year Outcome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Stroke, 42, 1707-1711.
[20] Foldi, N. S., Schaeffer, L. A., White, R. E. C., Johnson, R., Berger, J. P., Carney, M. T., & Macina, L. O. (2005). Effect of Graded Levels of Physical Similarity and Density on Visual Attention in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychology, 19, 5-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.19.6.728
[21] Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-Mental State”: A Practical Guide for Grading the Cognitive State of Patients for the Clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.
[22] Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., McHugh, P. R., & Fanjiang, G. (2002). MMSE Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental. Madrid: TEA Ediciones, S.A.
[23] Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., McHugh, P. R., & Fanjiang, G. (2001). Mini-Mental Status Examination. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
[24] Haubois, G., Annweiler, C., Launay, C., Fantino, B., de Decker, L., Allali, G., & Beauchet, O. (2011). Development of a Short Form of Mini-Mental State Examination for the Screening of Dementia in Older Adults with a Memory Complaint: A Case Control Study. BMC Geriatrics, 11, 59-64. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/11/59
[25] Herrera Pino, J. A., Armas, J., Dieguez, N., & Alarcon, E. (2013). Conceptual Foundations of a Cognitive Health Program for Hispanic Patients with Minor Neurocognitive Disorder. Psychology, 4, 23-28.
[26] Herrera, J. A., & Vargas, J. L. (2007). Handbook of Neuropsychological Examination of Dementia. Coral Gables, FL: Interamerican Academy of Applied Cognitive Neuroscience.
[27] Jack, C. R., Shiung, M. M., Weigand, S. D., O’Brien, P. C., Gunter, J. L., Boeve, B. F., Knopman, D. S., Smith, G. E., Ivnik, R. J., Tangalos, E. G., & Petersen, R. C. (2005). Brain Atrophy Rates Predict Subsequent Clinical Conversion in Normal Elderly and Amnestic MCI. Neurology, 65, 1227-1231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000180958.22678.91
[28] Kaplan, E. F., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S. (1983). The Boston Naming Test (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
[29] Kaplan, E. F., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S. (1996). Test de Vocabulario de Boston (2da. ed.). Buenos Aires: Editorial Médica Panamericana.
[30] Khachiyants, N., & Kim, L. (2012). Mini-Mental Status Examination Mapping to the Corresponding Brain Areas in Dementia. ATI-Applied Technologies & Innovations, 7, 55-58. http://www.academicpublishingplatforms.com
[31] Kim, T. H., Jhoo, J. H., Park, H. J., Kim, J. L., Ryu, S. H., Moon, S. W., Choo, H., Lee, D. W., Yoon, J. C., Do, Y. J., Lee, S. B., Kim, M. D., & Kim, K. W. (2010). Korean Version of Mini Mental Status Examination for Dementia Screening and Its Short Form. Psychiatry Investigation, 7, 102-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2010.7.2.102
[32] Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. D., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[33] Lipton, A. M., Ohman, K. A., Womack, K. B., Hynan, L. S., Ninman, E. T., & Lacritz, L. H. (2005). Subscores of the FAB Differentiate Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration from AD. Neurology, 65, 726-731.
[34] Malhotra, C., Chan, A., Matchar, D., Seow, D., Chuo, A., & Do, Y. K. (2013). Diagnostic Performance of Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire for Screening Dementia among Patients Attending Cognitive Assessment Clinics in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 42, 15-19.
[35] Meyers, J. E., & Meyers, K. R. (1995). Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
[36] O’Hara, R., Schroeder, C. M., Kraemer, H. C., Kryla, N., Cao, C., Miller, E., Schatzberg, A. F., Yesavage, J. A., & Murphy, G. M. (2005). Nocturnal Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Is Associated with Lower Memory Performance in APOE ε4 Carriers. Neurology, 65, 642-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000173055.75950.bf
[37] Park, B., Jun, J. K., & Park, J. (2014). Cognitive Impairment and Depression in the Early 60s: Which Is More Problematic in Terms of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living? Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 14, 62-70.
[38] Razlighi, Q. R., Stallard, E., Brandt, J., Blacker, D., Albert, M., Scarmeas, N., Kinosian, B., Yashin, A. I., & Stern, J. (2014). A New Algorithm for Predicting Time to Disease Endpoints in Alzheimer’s Patients. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 38, 1-14.
[39] Rey, A. (2003). Test de Copia y Reproducción de Memoria de Figuras Complejas (8th ed.). Madrid: TEA Ediciones, S.A.
[40] Ronnlund, M., Nyberg, L., Backman, L., & Nilsson, L. (2005). Stability, Growth, and Decline in Adult Life Span Development of Declarative Memory: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data from a Population-Based Study. Psychology and Aging, 20, 3-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.1.3
[41] Sarasola, D., de Luján-Calcagno, M., Sabe, L., Crivelli, L., Torralba, T., Roca, M., García-Caballero, A., & Manes, F. (2005). El Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination en espanol para el diagnóstico de demencia y para la diferenciación entre enfermedad de Alzheimer y demencia frontotemporal. Revista de Neurología, 41, 717-721.
[42] Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
[43] Sivan, A. B. (1992). Benton Visual Retention Test (5th ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
[44] Smith, A. (1973). Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
[45] Smith, A. (1982). Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
[46] Smith, A. (2002). SDMT: Test de Símbolos y Dígitos. Madrid: TEA Ediciones, S.A.
[47] Spaan, P. E. J., Raaijmakers, J. G. W., & Jonker, C. (2005). Early Assessment of Dementia: The Contribution of Different Memory Components. Neuropsychology, 19, 629-640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.19.5.629
[48] Spreen, O., & Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[49] Wikman, A., & Summala, S. (2005) Aging and Time-Sharing in Highway Driving. Optometry and Vision Science, 82, 716-723.
[50] Yajima, K., Matsushita, T., Sumitomo, H., Sakurai, H., Katayama, T., Kanno, K., Sakai, M., Shigeta, M., Shirabe, S., Nakano, T., Nishimura, K., Ueki, A., & Kitaoka, M. (2013). One-Minute Mental Status Examination for Category Fluency Is More Useful than Mini-Mental State Examination to Evaluate the Reliability of Insulin Self-Injection in Elderly Diabetic Patients Receiving Insulin Therapy. Journal of Diabetes Investigation.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.