Detection and Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Toilet and Classroom Door Handles in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County


Background: Staphylococcus aureus is found on all surfaces especially in public areas like hospitals and schools and on frequently touched areas like toilet and classroom door handles. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus which is resistant to methicillin. There are two types of MRSA: Community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and hospital acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA). MRSA in the community presents a significant reservoir that could enter into healthcare facilities and spread among patients and also a risk for immune compromised persons in the community. Methodology: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of MRSA isolated from toilet and classroom door handles as a potential source of infection to the students and the workers in selected schools in Nairobi, Kenya. The study also compared the prevalence of MRSA between boarding and non-boarding girls, boys and mixed (both girls and boys in the same school) secondary schools. Twelve secondary schools in Nairobi County were randomly selected and 306 samples from both the toilet and classroom door handles were collected using sterile swabs and transported to the laboratory. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was done by the use of selective media Mannitol salt agar, antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was done by disk diffusion method, and molecular detection of mecA and PVL genes were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The prevalence of S. aureus was 20% and 15% were MRSA positive by both Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test and PCR detection. 20% showed the presence of PVL genes, 8% showed the presence of both genes and 56% of isolates with mecA gene had PVL genes. Conclusion: The presence of MRSA in this study emphasizes the need to formulate hygiene measures to prevent possible spread of MRSA and other transmissible pathogens to students and workers in the schools.

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C. Mbogori, A. Muigai and S. Kariuki, "Detection and Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Toilet and Classroom Door Handles in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County," Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 248-252. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34037.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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