Urban Amenities and the Development of Creative Clusters: The Case of Brazil


This paper describes the creative potential of Brazilian territories, including aspects pointed as cities’ comparative advantages in terms of creativity: cultural facilities, labor market and public expenditures in culture. The paper uses clustering analysis, applied to secondary data from the Brazilian Demographic Census (IBGE), Survey of Basic Municipal Information (MUNIC/IBGE) and municipal expenditures in culture from National Treasury (FINBRA). Among the six clusters which were created, three are well defined and the others are quite mixed. Cluster 1 includes the two largest and most developed cities in Brazil, S?o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Cluster 2 is composed of capitals of important states in Brazil and cities where large universities are located. We named this cluster as creative university centers. Cluster 3 comprises 99 municipalities and can be named as centers of cultural and ecological tourism.

Share and Cite:

Machado, A. , Simões, R. and Diniz, S. (2013) Urban Amenities and the Development of Creative Clusters: The Case of Brazil. Current Urban Studies, 1, 92-101. doi: 10.4236/cus.2013.14010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ateca-Amestoy, V. (2008). Determining heterogeneous behavior for theater attendance. Journal of Cultural Economics, 32, 127-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10824-008-9065-z
[2] Ahlfeldt, G. M., & Maennig, W. (2010). Substitutability and Complementarity of Urban Amenities: External effects of built heritage in Berlin. Real Estate Economics, 38, 285-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6229.2010.00268.x
[3] Angel, D. (1989). The Labor market for Engineers in the U.S. SemiConductor Industry. Economic Geography, 65, 99-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143775
[4] Benhamou, F. (2007). A Economia da Cultura. São Paulo: Ateliê Editorial.
[5] Bille, T., & Schulze, G. G. (2008). Culture in urban and regional development. In V. A. Ginsburgh, & D. Throsby (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture. Oxford: North-Holland Elsevier.
[6] Blomquist, G., Berger, M., & Hoehn, J. (1988). Nem estimates of quality of life in urban areas. American Economic Review, 78, 89-107.
[7] Bonato, L., Gargliardi, F., & Gorelli, S. (1990). The demand for live performing arts in Italy. Journal of Cultural Economics, 14, 41-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02898281
[8] Borgonovi, F. (2004). Performing arts attendance: An economic approach. Applied Economics, 36, 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0003684042000264010
[9] Bourdieu, P., & Darbel, P. (1969). L’ amour de l’art. Lês musées d’ art européen et leur public. Paris: De Minuit.
[10] Clark, T. N. (2004) The city as an entertainment machine. Research in Urban Policy, 9. London: Elsevier.
[11] Clark, D. E., & Kahn, J. R. (1988). The social benefits of urban cultural amenities. Journal of Regional Science, 28, 363-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.1988.tb01088.x
[12] Cwi, D. (1980). Public support of the arts: Three arguments examined. Journal of Cultural Economics, 4, 39-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02580849
[13] Diniz, S. C., & Machado, A. F. (2010). Analysis of the Consumption of Artistic-Cultural Goods and Services in Brazil. Journal of Cultural Economics, 34, 244-265.
[14] Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books.
[15] Glaeser, E., Kolko, J., & Saiz, A. (2001). Consumer city. Journal of Economic Geography, 1, 27-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jeg/1.1.27
[16] Golgher, A. (2008). As cidades e a classe criativa no Brasil: DiferenÇas espaciais na distribuiÇão de indivíduos qualificados nos municípios brasileiros. Revista Brasileira de Estudos de PopulaÇão, 25, 109-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-30982008000100007
[17] Golgher, A. B. (2011). A distribuiÇão de indivíduos qualificados nas regiões metropolitanas brasileiras: A influência do entretenimento e da diversidade populacional. Nova Economia, 21, 109-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-63512011000100004
[18] Gottlieb, P. (1994). Amenities as an Economic Development Tool: Is there enough evidence? Economic Development Quarterly, 8, 270-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124249400800304
[19] Gottlieb, P. (1995). Residential Amenities, Firm Location and Economic Development. Urban Studies, 32, 1413-1436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420989550012320
[20] Granger, M., & Blomquist, G. (1999). Evaluating the influence of amenities on the location of manufacturing establishments in urban areas. Urban Studies, 36.
[21] Hermann, B., & Haddad, E. (2003). Mercado Imobiliário e Amenidades Urbanas: A ViewThrough the Window. XXXI Encontro Nacional De Economia—Anpec. Anais. ANPEC, Porto Seguro.
[22] Herzog, H., & Schlottmann, A. (1993). Valuing Amenities and Disamenities of Urban Scale: Can higger be better? Journal of Regional Science, 33, 145-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.1993.tb00218.x
[23] Knapp, T., & Graves, P. (1989). On the role of amenities in models of migration and regional development. Journal of Regional Science, 29, 71-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.1989.tb01223.x
[24] Lash, S., & Urry, J. (1994). Economies of signs and space. London: Sage.
[25] Lazzeretti, L. (2013). Cultural and creative industries. Creative Industries and Innovation in Europe Concepts, Measures and Comparative Case Studies. Routledge.
[26] Mcgranahan, D., & Wojan, T. (2007). Recasting the creative class to examine growth processes in rural and urban counties. Regional Studies, 41, 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00343400600928285
[27] Macedo, P. B. R., & Simões, R. (1998). Amenidades Urbanas e CorrelaÇão Espacial: Uma análise intra-urbana para BH (MG). Revista Brasileira de Economia, 52, 525-542.
[28] Malecki, E. (1984). High technologyand local economic development. Journal of American Planning Association, 50, 262-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944368408976593
[29] Markusen, A. (2006) Urban development and the politics of a creative class: Evidence from the study of artists. Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921-1940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a38179
[30] Markusen, A., Hall, P., & Glasmeier, A. (1986). High Tech America: The what, how and why of sunrise industries. Boston: Allen and Irwin.
[31] Mingoti, S. A. (2007). Análise de dados através de métodos de estatística multivariada. Belo Horizonte: UFMG.
[32] Perloff, H. (1979) Using the arts to improve life in the city. Journal of Cultural Economics, 3, 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02427550
[33] Ringstad, V., & LØyland, K. (2006) The demand for books estimated by means of consumer survey data. Journal of Cultural Economics, 30, 141-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10824-006-9006-7
[34] Rocha, R., & Magalhães, A. (2011) Qualidade das amenidades urbanas: Uma estimaÇão da propensão marginal a pagar para as regiões metropolitanas do Brasil. Estudos Econômicos, 41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-41612011000100003
[35] Silveira Neto, R., & Azzoni, C. R. (2004). Disparidades regionais de renda no Brasil. In Encontro Regional De Economia—Anpec Nordeste. anais. Fortaleza: ANPEC/BNB.
[36] Simões, R. F., Garcia, R. A., & Lima, A. C. (2012). Novas centralidades e interiorizaÇões na Amazônia: O modelo CENTRALINA. Belo Horizonte/Belém/São José dos Campos; PROJETO URBIS/ AMAZÔNIA—ITVS/INPE (mimeo).
[37] Sivitanidou, R., & Sivitanides, P. (1995). The intrametropolitan distribution of R&D activities: Theory and empirical evidence. Journal of Regional Science, 35, 391-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.1995.tb01411.x
[38] Smith, L., Rosen, K., & Fallis, G. (1988). Recent development in economic models of housing markets. Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 29-64.
[39] Stigler, G. J., & Becker, G. S. (1977). De gustibus non est disputandum. American Economic Review, 67, 76-90.
[40] Throsby, D. (2001). Economics and culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[41] UNDP. (2008). The Creative Economy Report 2008. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf
[42] Vandell, K. D., & Lane, J. S. (1989). The economics of architecture and urban design: Some preliminary findings. Real Estate Economics, 17, 235-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-6229.00489

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.