Physio-pathology of induced endotoxaemia in bovine and its treatment regimen


Endotoxic shock was induced in five apparently healthy male buffalo calves by i.v infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin at 5microgram/kilogram (μg/Kg) body weight/hour (BW/hr) for 3 hours. Endotoxin infusion caused clinical signs of restlessness, respiratory distress, snoring, diarrhoea, profuse salivation along with the significant hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypokalemia in all the animals. The animals were observed up to day 4 or death, whichever was earlier. The treatment with one time intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution @ 4milliliter/Kilogram body weight (ml/Kg?BW), dextran-40 @ 10 ml/Kg?BW, flunixin meglumine @ 1.1 milligram/Kg?BW (mg/Kg?BW) and blood @ 20 ml/Kg?BW to these animals alleviated the clinical signs and significantly raised the circulating glucose level at 4.5 and 5.5 hrs. The treatment led to survival of three of the five endotoxemic buffalo calves. The significant hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia and hypoglobulinemia continued even after treatment. Gross and histopathologic findings of congestion, haemorrhage, necrosis in vital organs viz., lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and intestines were suggestive of endotoxin induced hypoxia and multi-organ failure. Additionally, emphysema and fibrinous thrombi in microvasculature of lungs were salient histopathological findings indicating terminal respiratory failure in the remaining two dead endotoxemic buffalo calves. From clinical signs, plasma chemistry and pathological lesions, it was concluded that endotoxemia led to a disruption of critical life processes, but a timely and effective treatment could counter these deleterious effects and save precious lives.


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Nabi, I. , Singh, D. and Sood, N. (2013) Physio-pathology of induced endotoxaemia in bovine and its treatment regimen. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 1077-1084. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.611135.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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