Effect of dietary energy level on body weight, testicular development and semen quality of local barred chicken of the western highlands of Cameroon


This study was designed to examine the effects of dietary energy levels on some growth and reproductive parameters of local barred chickens in Cameroon. For this purpose, One hundred and forty four day-old barred male chicks, weighing 28.33 g in average were randomly divided into 12 groups of 12 chicks each. Three feeding programs (FP) comprising each a starter diet from day old to 12 weeks (S0: 2800 Kcal/Kg; S1: 2900 Kcal/Kg; S2: 3000 Kcal/Kg) and grower diet from 13 to 20 weeks (G0: 2900 Kcal/Kg; G1: 3000 Kcal/ Kg; G2: 3100 Kcal/Kg) were used and designated FP1, FP2 and FP3 respectively. Each of the FP was randomly allotted of 4 groups of 12 birds in a completely randomized design. Throughout experiment (1 day old to 20 weeks), body weight was recovered every 2 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, roosters were sacrificed; semen characteristic was analyzed and testes were characterized. Between 2 to 10 weeks old, body weight of cocks fed with FP3 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) as compared to others FP. Inversely, from 12 to 20 weeks, body weight of cocks receiving FP1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of cocks receiving feeding programs 2 and 3. At 20 weeks, 100% of cocks fed on FP3 produced semen versus 66.66% and 16.66% respectively for those on FP1 and FP2. Semen volume and mass motility of cocks fed on FP3 or FP1 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than FP2. It was concluded that FP1 had more suitable dietary energy levels for growth and reproduction of local barred cocks.

Share and Cite:

D’Alex Tadondjou, C. , Ngoula, F. , Ngoula, F. , Fuelefack Defang, H. , Kuietche Mube, H. and Teguia, A. (2013) Effect of dietary energy level on body weight, testicular development and semen quality of local barred chicken of the western highlands of Cameroon. Advances in Reproductive Sciences, 1, 38-43. doi: 10.4236/arsci.2013.13006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Dessie, T., Taye, T., Dana, N., Ayalew, W. and Hanotte, O. (2011) Current state of knowledge on phenotypic characteristics of indigenous chickens in the tropics. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 67, 507-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043933911000559
[2] Van Marle-Koster, E. (2001) Genetic and phenotypic characterization of native fowl population in South Africa. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pretoria.
[3] Tadelle, D. (2003) Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes of Ethiopia. Ph.D. Thesis, Humboldt University.
[4] Keambou, T.C., Manjeli, Y., Tchoumboue, J., Teguia, A. and Iroume, R.N. (2007) Caractérisation morphobiométrique des ressources génétiques de poules locales des hautes terres de l’Ouest Cameroun. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19, 107.
[5] El-Yuguda, A.D., Baba, S.S., Ibrahim, U.I. and Brisibe, F. (2009) Maladie de Newcastle et maladie de Gumboro chez les poulets villageois dans l’Etat de Borno (Nigeria). Aviculture Familiale, 18, 18-27.
[6] Fotsa, J.C., Bordas, A., Rognon, X., Tixier-Boichard, M., Poné, K.D. and Manjeli, Y. (2007) Caractérisation des élevages et des poules locales et comparaison en station de leurs performances à celles d’une souche commerciale de type Label au Cameroun. Septièmes journées de la Recherche Avicoles, Tours, 28 et 29 Mars 2007.
[7] Fotsa, J.C., Rognon, X., Tixier-Boichard, M., Coquerelle, G., Poné, K.D., Ngou Ngoupayou, J.D., et al. (2010) Caractérisation phénotypique des populations de poules locales (Gallus Gallus) de la zone forestière dense à pluviométrie bimodale du Cameroun. Animal Genetic Resources, 46, 49-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S207863361000069X
[8] Brillard, J.P. (2003) Practical aspects of fertility in poultry. World’s Poultry Science, 59, 441-446.
[9] Sarah, M. (2001) Selecting males by sperm quality. World Poultry-Elsevier, 17, 32-34.
[10] Upendra, H.A., Mitra, S.K. and Suryanayana, T. (2000) Effect of speman vet powder on semen quality and hatchability in poultry. The Veterinarian, 24, 23.
[11] Peters, S.O., Omidiji, E.A., Ikeobi, C.O.N., Ozoje, M.O. and Adebambo, O.A. (2004) Effect of naked neck and frizzled genes on egg traits, fertility and hatchability in local chicken. Self Sufficiency of Animal Protein in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 9th Annual conference of Anim. Sci. Assoc. Nig., Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, 262-264.
[12] Parker, H.M. and McDaniel, C.D. (2004) The optimum semen dilution for the sperm quality index that is most predictive of Broiler Breeder fertility. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3, 588-592. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2004.588.592
[13] Máchal, L. and Krivánek I. (2001) Indicators of semen quality of roosters of three parental layer lines and specific conductivity of the semen. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 71, 109-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200271010109
[14] Nering, S., Vita, R., Aloyzas, J., Henrikas, Z. and Magnus, A. (2009) Assessment of sperm quality traits in relation to fertility in boar semen. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 51, 1.
[15] Romero-Sanchez, H., Plumstead, P.W., Leksrisompong, N., Brannan, K.E. and Brake, J. (2008) Feeding Broiler Breeder males. 4. Deficient feed allocation reduces fertility and broiler progeny body weight. Poultry Science, 87, 805-811. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00285
[16] Ghonim, A.I.A., Awad, A.L., Kout, E. and Moustafa, M. (2010) Effect of feeding different levels of energy and crude protein on semen quality and fertility of Domyati Ducks. Egyptian Poultry Science, 30, 583-600.
[17] Brière, S., Brillard, J.P., Panheleux, M. and Froment, P. (2011) Alimentation, fertilité et bienêtre des oiseaux reproducteurs domestiques: Des liens complexes. INRA Productions Animales, 24, 171-180.
[18] Marie, Y.A., Ibrahim, M.A., Mahmoud, M.A. and Abou-Khashaba, H.A. (2009) Influence of nutrient density on productive and reproductive performance of some local laying hen strains. Egyptian Poultry Science, 29, 527-564.
[19] Kirby, J.D., Mankar, M.V., Hardesty, D. and Kreider, D.L. (1996) Effects of transient prepubertal hypothyroidism on testis development and function in the domestic fowl. Biology Reproduction, 55, 910-916. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod55.4.910
[20] Camci, ?., Erensayin, C. and Aktan, S. (2002) Relations between age at sexual maturity and some production characteristics in quails. Archives of Geflvgelk, 66, 280-282.
[21] Meky, M.A.M. (2007) Effect of age at sexual maturity on some production traits of Japanese quails. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexan-drie University.
[22] El-Dlebshany, E.A. (2008) The relationship between age at sexual maturity and some productive traits in local chickens strain. Egyptian Poultry Science, 28, 1253-1263.
[23] Kirk, S., Emmans, G.C., McDonald, R. and Arnist, D. (1980) Factors affecting hatchability of eggs from broiler breeders. British Poultry Science, 21, 37-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668008416633
[24] Walsh, T.J. and Brake, J. (1997) The effect of nutrient intake during rearing of broiler breeder females on subsequent fertility. Poultry Science, 76, 297-305.
[25] Saeed, J.M. and Al-Soudi, K.A. (1975) Seasonal variation in semen characteristics of White Leghorn, New Hamphire and indigenous chickens in Iran. British Poultry Science, 16, 91-102.
[26] Omeje, S.S.I. and Marine, B.N. (1990) Evaluation of semen characteristics of adult cocks of different genetic background. Theriogenology, 24, 1111-1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(05)80010-X
[27] MINEPIA (2008) Donnéesstructurelles.
[28] Ngoula, F., Tebug, T.T., Kenfack, A., Defang, F.H., Tendonkeng, F. and Pamo, T.E. (2012) Effects of Buck Age, Storage Duration, Storage Temperature, and Diluent on Fresh West African Dwarf Buck Semen. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 3, 58-66.
[29] Hafez, E.S.E. (1987) Reproduction in Farm Animals. 5th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 315-481.
[30] Moreng, R.E. and Avens, J.S. (1985) Poultry science and production. Reston Publishing Company, Inc. Reston, Virginia, 203-234.
[31] Lee, C.I. (2009) Poultry Nutrition and feeding. Animal Nutrition Handbook, 316-331.
[32] Teteh, A., Tona, K., Aklikokou, K., Gbeassor, M., Buyse, J. and Decuypere, E. (2010) Effects of low-protein or high energy levels diets on layer-type chick juvenile performance. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9, 1156-1160. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2010.1156.1160
[33] L?pold, S., Wistbutba, J., Damm, S.O., Rivers, W.J. and Birkhead, R.T. (2011) Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality. Reproduction, 141, 595-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0501
[34] Peters, S.O., Shoyebo, O.D., IIori, B.M., Ozoje, M.O., Ikeobi, C.O.N. and Adebambo, O.A. (2008) Semen quality traits of seven strains of chickens raised in the humid tropics. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7, 949-953. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.949.953
[35] Sauveur, B. (1988) Reproduction des volailles et production d’?ufs. INRA, Paris.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.