Evaluation of Flight Trajectory and Unsteady Fluid Forces on Kicked Non-Spinning Soccer Ball by Digital Image Analysis


This paper describes the experimental method for evaluating the flight trajectory and the aerodynamic performance of a kicked non-spinning soccer ball. The flight trajectory measurement is carried out using the digital image analysis. A centroid method and a template matching method are tested for the flight trajectory analysis using the artificial images generated by the data of a free-fall experiment. The drag coefficient obtained by the centroid method is better suited for the sports ball experiment than that by the template matching method, which is due to the robustness of the centroid method to the non-uniform illumination. Then, the flight trajectory analysis is introduced to a kicked experiment for a non-spinning soccer ball. The experimental result obtained from the stereo observation indicates that the S-shaped variation is found in the three-dimensional flight trajectory and in the side force coefficient during the flight of the non-spinning soccer ball.

Share and Cite:

T. Yamagata, T. Nagasawa, N. Fujisawa and T. Asai, "Evaluation of Flight Trajectory and Unsteady Fluid Forces on Kicked Non-Spinning Soccer Ball by Digital Image Analysis," Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2013, pp. 86-93. doi: 10.4236/jfcmv.2013.13011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] P. W. Bearman and J. K. Harvey, “Golf Ball Aerodynamics,” The Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1976, pp. 112-122.
[2] K. Aoki, K. Muto and H. Okanaga, “Mechanism of Drag Reduction by Dimple Structure on a Sphere,” Journal of Fluid Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1- 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1299/jfst.7.1
[3] R. D. Mehta, “Aerodynamics of Sports Balls,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 17, 1985, pp. 151-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.17.010185.001055
[4] K. Aoki, Y. Kinoshita, J. Nagase and Y. Nakayama, “Dependence of Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flow Pattern on Surface Structure of a Baseball,” Journal of Visualization, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2003, pp. 185-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03181623
[5] M. J. Carre, T. Asai, T. Akatsuka and S. J. Haake, “The Curve Kick of a Football II: Flight Through the Air,” Sports Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2002, pp. 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-2687.2002.00109.x
[6] I. Griffiths, C. Evans and N. Griffiths, “Tracking the Flight of a Spinning Football in Three Dimensions,” Measurement Science Technology, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2005, pp. 2056-2065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/16/10/022
[7] T. Asai, K. Seo, O. Kobayashi and R. Sakashita, “Fundamental Aerodynamics of the Soccer Ball,” Sports Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2007, pp. 101-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02844207
[8] K. Seo, S. Barber, T. Asai, M. Carre and O. Kobayashi, “The Flight Trajectory of a Non-spinning Soccer Ball,” Proceedings of 3rd Asian-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, 2007, pp. 385-390.
[9] T. Asai, K. Seo, O. Kobayashi and R. Sakashita, “A Study on Wake Structure of Soccer Ball,” Proceedings of 3rd Asian-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, 2007, pp. 391-402.
[10] J. E. Goff and M. J. Carre, “Trajectory Analysis of a Soccer Ball,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 77, No. 11, 2009, pp. 1020-2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.3197187
[11] S. Barber and M. J. Carre, “The Effect of Surface Geometry on Soccer Ball Trajectories,” Sports Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2010, pp. 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12283-010-0048-x
[12] M. Murakami, K. Seo, M. Kondoh and Y. Iwai, “Wind Tunnel Measurement and Flow Visualization of Soccer Ball Knuckle Effect,” Sports Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2012, pp. 29-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12283-012-0085-8
[13] G. D. Backer, M. Vantorre, C. Beels, J. D. Pre, S. Victor, J. D. Rouck, C. Blommaert and W. V. Paepegem, “Experimental Investigation of Water Impact on Axisymmetric Bodies,” Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2009, pp. 143-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2009.07.003
[14] T. T. Truscott and A. H. Techet, “Water Entry of Spinning Spheres,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 625, 2009, pp. 135-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112008005533
[15] A. H. Techet and T. T. Truscott, “Water Entry of Spinning Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Spheres,” Journal of Fluids and Structres, Vol. 27, No. 5-6, 2011, pp. 716-726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2011.03.014
[16] M. H. Zhao and X. P. Chen, “A Combined Data Processing Method on Water Impact Force Measurement,” Journal of Hydrodynamics, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2012, pp. 692-701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(11)60293-X
[17] S. J. Laurence, “On Tracking the Motion of Rigid Bodies through Edge Detection and Least-Squares Fitting,” Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 387-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00348-011-1228-6
[18] M. Kiuchi, N. Fujisawa and S. Tomimatsu, “Performance of PIV System for Combusting Flow and Its Application to Spray Combustor Model,” Journal of Visualization, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2005, pp. 269-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03181505
[19] T. Etoh, K. Takehara, K. Michioku and S. Kuno, “A Study on Particle Identification in PTV: Particle Mask Correlation Method,” Proceedings of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 40, 1996, pp. 1051-1058. http://dx.doi.org/10.2208/prohe.40.1051
[20] E. Achenbach, “Experiments on the Flow Past Spheres at Very High Reynolds Numbers,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 54, No. 3, 1972, pp. 565-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112072000874

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.