Measurement of Glutathionylated Haemoglobin by MAL-DI-ToF Mass Spectrometry as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Heavy Smokers and in Occupational Obese Subjects
Federico Maria Rubino, Cinzia Della Noce, Luisella Vigna, Rachele De Giuseppe, Cristina Novembrino, Federica de Liso, Rita Maiavacca, Lorenzo Patrini, Luciano Riboldi, Fabrizia Bamonti
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Dipartimento CardioToracico e Vascolare,Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Milano, Italy.
Dipartimento di Medicina Preventiva, U.O. Medicina del Lavoro, “Clinica del Lavoro L Devoto”, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche e Odontoiatriche, Università degli Studi di Milano, Unità Operativa di Ematologia e CTMO, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico via F. Sforza 35, Milano, Italy.
Laboratorio Centrale di Analisi Chimico Cliniche e Microbiologia, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, via F. Sforza 35, Milano, Italy.
Laboratorio di Tossicologia e Metabonomica Analitica (LaTMA), Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.
DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2013.11004   PDF    HTML     2,801 Downloads   5,621 Views   Citations


Glutathionyl-haemoglobin (Hb-SSG) is a minor form of haemoglobin characterized by the presence of a disulfide bond between the β-93 cysteine residue and the thiol group of glutathione. Hb-SSG is naturally present in the erythrocytes at levels comparable to those of glycated haemoglobin and can be measured by MALDI mass spectrometry on very small samples of erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Since Hb-SSG has been recognized as a sensitive biomarker of oxidative stress in several degenerative diseases (diabetes, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease) and in healthy workers exposed to glutathione-depleting toxic agents such as butadiene, we have measured for the first time the levels of Hb-SSG in two groups: healthy heavy cigarette smokers and overweight-obese. For both classes of subjects, the measured levels (6.4%±1.7%, n=30 for smokers; 3.0%±0.8%, n=20 for overweight-obese) are in the upper 97thpercentile of those measured in the Italian general population. Levels in smokers show a small, yet statistically significant dependence on the level of smoking addiction (>20 cig./day vs. £20 cig./day: 7.0% ± 1.4% vs. 5.7% ± 1.1%; p < 0.05). This biomarker thus adds to those presently available to rationally assess the extent of biological damage caused by tobacco smoking.

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Maria Rubino, F. , Della Noce, C. , Vigna, L. , De Giuseppe, R. , Novembrino, C. , de Liso, F. , Maiavacca, R. , Patrini, L. , Riboldi, L. and Bamonti, F. (2013) Measurement of Glutathionylated Haemoglobin by MAL-DI-ToF Mass Spectrometry as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress in Heavy Smokers and in Occupational Obese Subjects. International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography, 1, 22-30. doi: 10.4236/ijamsc.2013.11004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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