Integrated Use of Herbicide and Crop Mulch in Suppressing Weed Growth in a Dry-Seeded Rice System


Dry-seeded rice production systems are increasing in many Asian countries because of labor and water scarcities. However, weeds are the main biological constraints in these systems. Herbicides are widely used to manage weeds but they do not provide effective weed control. The use of crop residue as mulch can suppress weed emergence and weed biomass but mulch alone does not provide effective weed control. The integrated use of herbicide and mulch, however, could provide more effective and sustainable weed control in dry-seeded rice systems. A study was conducted in two consecutive rice growing seasons to evaluate the combined effect of herbicide (treated and nontreated) and rice straw mulch (0, 2, and 4 t.ha-1) on weed growth and rice yield in a dry-seeded rice system. In the nontreated plots, weed biomass decreased with increases in mulch amounts, whereas weed biomass in the herbicide-treated plots was similar at different mulch amounts. Overall, herbicide treatments provided better weed control than the mulch treatments. In the nontreated plots, grain yield was similar at different mulch amounts, whereas grain yield in the herbicide-treated plots was greater when the field was mulched with 4 t.ha-1 of rice straw than with no mulch or mulched with only 2 t.ha-1 of rice straw. The results suggest that integrated use of mulch and herbicides can help weed control and increase crop yield in dry-seeded rice.

Share and Cite:

B. Chauhan and S. Abugho, "Integrated Use of Herbicide and Crop Mulch in Suppressing Weed Growth in a Dry-Seeded Rice System," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1611-1616. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48195.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] B. S. Chauhan, “Weed Ecology and Weed Management Strategies for Dry-Seeded Rice in Asia,” Weed Technology, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-13. doi:10.1614/WT-D-11-00105.1
[2] B. S. Chauhan, G. Mahajan, V. Sardana, J. Timsina and M. L. Jat, “Productivity and Sustainability of the Rice-Wheat Cropping System in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the Indian Subcontinent: Problems, Opportunities and Strategies,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 117, 2012, pp. 315-369. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394278-4.00006-4
[3] G. Mahajan, B. S. Chauhan, J. Timsina, P. P. Singh and K. Singh, “Crop Performance and Water-and Nitrogen-Use Efficiencies in Dry-Seeded Rice in Response to Irrigation and Fertilizer Amounts in Northwest India,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 134, 2012, pp. 59-70. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2012.04.011
[4] T. P. Tuong and B. A. M. Bouman, “Rice Production in Water-Scarce Environments,” In: J. W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden, Eds., Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvements, CABI Publishing, Collingwood, 2003, pp. 53-67. doi:10.1079/9780851996691.0053
[5] T. P. Tuong, B. A. M. Bouman and M. Mortimer, “More Rice, Less Water: Integrated Approaches for Increasing Water Productivity in Irrigated Rice-Based Systems in Asia,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2005, pp. 231-241. doi:10.1626/pps.8.231
[6] B. S. Chauhan and J. Ope?a, “Effect of Tillage Systems and Herbicides on Weed Emergence, Weed Growth and Grain Yield in Dry-Seeded Rice Systems,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 137, 2012, pp. 56-69.
[7] B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “The Role of Seed Ecology in Improving Weed Management Strategies in the Tropics,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 105, 2010, pp. 221-262. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(10)05006-6
[8] Bijay-Singh, Y. H. Shan, S. E. Johnson-Beebout, Yadvinder-Singh and R. J. Buresh, “Crop Residue Management for Lowland Rice-Based Cropping Systems in Asia,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 98, 2008, pp. 117-199. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(08)00203-4
[9] B. S. Chauhan, R. G. Singh and G. Mahajan, “Ecology and Management of Weeds under Conservation Agriculture: A Review,” Crop Protection, Vol. 38, 2012, pp. 57-65. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.010
[10] C. L. Mohler and J. R. Teasdale, “Response of Weed Emergence to Rate of Vicia villosa Roth and Secale cereale L. Residue,” Weed Research, Vol. 33, No. 6, 1993, pp. 487-499. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3180.1993.tb01965.x
[11] P. Hobbs, “Conservation Agriculture: What Is It and Why Is It Important for Future Sustainable Food Production?” Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 145, No. 2, 2007, pp. 127-137. doi:10.1017/S0021859607006892
[12] Y. Tang, J. Zheng, G. Huang and J. Du, “Study on Permanent-Bed-Planting with Double Zero Tillage for Rice and Wheat in Sichuan Basin,” Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, 2004.
[13] B. S. Chauhan, G. Gill and C. Preston, “Tillage System Effects on Weed Ecology, Herbicide Activity and Persistence: A Review,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 46, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1557-1570. doi:10.1071/EA05291
[14] M. A. Locke, K. N. Reddy and R. M. Zablotowicz, “Weed Management in Conservation Crop Production Systems,” Weed Biology and Management, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2002, pp. 123-132. doi:10.1046/j.1445-6664.2002.00061.x
[15] A. N. Rao and A. Nagamani, “Integrated Weed Management in India-Revisited,” Indian Journal of Weed Science, Vol. 42, 2010, pp. 123-135.
[16] GenStat 8.0, “GenStat Release 8 Reference Manual,” VSN International, Oxford, 2005, p. 343.
[17] K. Ampong-Nyarko and S. K. De Datta, “A Handbook for Weed Control in Rice,” International Rice Research Institute, Los Ba?os, 1991, p. 113.
[18] B. S. Chauhan and D. E. Johnson, “Growth Response of Direct-Seeded Rice to Oxadiazon and Bispyribac-Sodium in Aerobic and Saturated Soils,” Weed Science, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2011, pp. 119-122. doi:10.1614/WS-D-10-00075.1
[19] B. S. Chauhan and S. B. Abugho, “Weed Management in Mechanized-Sown, Zero-Till Dry-Seeded Rice,” Weed Technology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2013, pp. 28-33. doi:10.1614/WT-D-12-00088.1
[20] D. B. Ishaya, S. A. Dadari and J. A. Y. Shebayan, “Evaluation of Herbicides for Weed Control in Three Varieties of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Nigerian Savannah,” Crop Protection, Vol. 26, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1490-1495. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2006.12.015
[21] W. E. Dyer, “Exploiting Weed Seed Dormancy and Germination Requirements through Agronomic Practices. Weed Science, Vol. 43, 1995, pp. 498-503.
[22] J. R. Teasdale and C. L. Mohler, “Light Transmittance, Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture under Residue of Hairy Vetch and Rye,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 85, No. 3, 1993, pp. 673-680. doi:10.2134/agronj1993.00021962008500030029x
[23] B. S. Chauhan and G. Mahajan, “Role of Integrated Weed Management Strategies in Sustaining Conservation Agriculture Systems,” Current Science, Vol. 103, 2012, pp. 135-136.
[24] R. Gopal, R. K. Jat, R. K. Malik, V. Kumar, M. M. Alam, M. L. Jat, M. A. Mazid, Y. S. Saharawat, A. McDonald and R. Gupta, “Direct Dry Seeded Rice Production Technology and Weed Management in Rice Based Systems. Technical Bulletin,” International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, New Delhi, 2010, p. 28.
[25] R. K. Gupta, J. K. Ladha, S. Singh, R. Singh, M. L. Jat, Y. Saharawat, V. P. Singh, S. S. Singh, G. Singh, G. Sah, M. Gathala, R. K. Sharma, M. S. Gill, M. Alam, H. M. U. Rehman, U. P. Singh, R. A. Mann, H. Pathak, B. S. Chauhan, P. Bhattacharya and R. K. Malik, “Production Technology for Direct Seeded Rice,” In: Rice-Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin, Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, 2006, p. 16.
[26] R. A. Liebl and A. D. Worsham, “Tillage and Mulch Effects on Morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) and Certain Other Weed Species,” Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society, Vol. 36, 1983, pp. 405-414.
[27] C. L. Mohler, “Effects of Tillage and Mulch on Weed Biomass and Sweet Corn Yield,” Weed Technology, Vol. 5, 1991, pp. 545-552.
[28] C. L. Mohler and M. B. Calloway, “Effects of tillage and mulch on the emergence and survival of weeds in sweet corn,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1992, pp. 21-34. doi:10.2307/2404343

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.