Gamma Ray Induced Radio Sensitivity in Three Different Mulberry (Morus) Genotypes


Mulberry genotypes M5, S54 and Kosen were procured from mulberry germplasm bank, Department of Sericulture, Bangalore University. Juvenile twigs of mulberry genotypes were used for cuttings preparation. Newly prepared juvenile cuttings were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (1 kR - 10 kR) from Co60 gamma unit. Propagation parameters like sprouting, rooting, survivability, plant height, number of branches, internodal distance and leaf area were recorded. Results revealed decline in growth parameters with the increase in gamma ray dosage (1 kR - 10 kR). Moderate dosages (4 kR - 7 kR) are the most competent range and height of the irradiated population significantly reduced with the increase in gamma rays dosage. Higher doses of gamma rays (8 kR - 10 kR) drastically reduced the number of branches. M5 and S54 showed marked improvement in plant height at 4 kR (155.14 cm) and 7 kR (147.86 cms) respectively compared to control. Morphologically, leaf mutants like enlarged (4 kR), curled (8 kR), mosaic (8kR) and biforked (9 kR) leaves were observed in gamma irradiated M5 genotype. Kosen exhibited small, crumpled, biforked and chlorophyll deficient leaves (8 kR - 10 kR). S54 exhibited boat shaped leaves with wrinkled texture (8 kR).

Share and Cite:

H. Ramesh, V. Murthy and  . Munirajappa, "Gamma Ray Induced Radio Sensitivity in Three Different Mulberry (Morus) Genotypes," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 1351-1358. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47165.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] I. Tojyo, “Studies on Polyploidy Mulberry Tree I. Breeding of Artificial Autotetraploids,” Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Japan), Vol. 20, No. 3, 1966, pp. 187207.
[2] K. Hazama, “Induced Mutations and Plant Breeding Methods in Vegetatively Propagated Species,” The Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1967, pp. 346-352.
[3] K. Katagiri, “Varietal Differences of Mutations Rate and Mutation Spectrum after Acute Gamma Ray Irradiation in Mulberry,” The Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1970, pp. 194-200.
[4] A. Tikader, K. Vijayan, B. N. Roy and T. Pavankumar, “Studies on Propagation Efficiency of Mulberry [Morus spp.] at Ploidy Level,” Sericologia, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1996, pp. 345-349.
[5] T. Sugiyama and I. Tojyo, “Studies on the Effect of Irradiation on Bud of Mulberry Cutting in the Hybridization,” Bulletin of the Sericultural Experiment Station, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1962, pp. 115-132.
[6] K. N. Deshpande, S. S. Mehetre and S. D. Pingle, “Effect of Different Mutagens for Induction of Mutations in Mulberry,” Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, Vol. 1, 2010, pp. 104-108.
[7] S. B. Dandin and M. S. Jolly, “Mulberry Descriptor,” Sericologia, Vol. 26, No. 4,1986, pp. 465-475.
[8] M. Sanjappa, “Geographic Distribution and Exploration of the Genus Morus L. (Moraceae),” In: K. Sengupta and S. B. Dandin, Eds., Genetic Resources of Mulberry and Utilization,” Central Sericultural Research & Training Institute, Mysore, 1989, pp. 4-7.
[9] Shamachary and M. S. Jolly, “A Simple Device for Quick Determination of Mulberry Leaf Area in the Field,” Indian Journal of Sericulture, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1988, pp. 51-54.
[10] G. L. Sundararaj, M. N. Nagaraju, Venkataramu and Jaganath, “Design and Analysis of Field Experiments,” University of Agricultural Sciences, Miscellaneous Series No. 22, Bangalore, 1972, pp. 424440.
[11] R. K. Singh and B. D. Choudhury, “Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis,” Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 1985.
[12] V. C. Jayaramaiah and Munirajappa, “Induction of Mutations in Mulberry Variety ‘Mysore Local’ by Gamma Irradiation,” Sericologia, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1987, pp. 199204.
[13] M. S. RaoEswar, S. B. Dandin, R. S. Mallikarjunappa, H. V. Venkateshaiah and U. D. Bongale, “Evaluation of Induced Tetraploid and Evolved Triploid Mulberry Genotypes for Propagation, Growth and Yield Parameters,” Indian Journal of Sericulture, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2004, pp. 88-90.
[14] S. B. Dandin and R. Kumar, “Evaluation of Mulberry Genotypes for Different Growth and Yield Parameters,” In: K. Sengupta and S. B. Dandin, Eds., Genetic Resources of Mulberry and Utilization, Central Sericultural Research & Training Institute, Mysore, 1989, pp. 143151.
[15] H. T. Hartman and D. E. Kester, “Plant PropagationPrinciples and Practices,” Prentice Hall of India, 1976, pp. 120-135.
[16] H. Fujitha and M. Wada, “Studies on Mutation Breeding in Mulberry (Morus spp.),” In: Induced Mutations in Vegetatively Propagated Plants, IAEA, Vienna, 1982, pp. 249-279.
[17] K. Nakajima, “Induction of Useful Mutation in Mulberry by Gamma Irradiation,” Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1972, pp. 195-198.
[18] B. C. Das, B. B. Bindroo, A. K. Tiku and R. K. Pandit, “Propagation of Mulberry through Cuttings,” Indian Silk, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1987, pp. 12-13.
[19] F. Skoog, “The Effect of Radiation on Auxin and Plant Growth,” Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology, Vol. 7, 1935, pp. 227-270. doi:10.1002/jcp.1030070206
[20] G. F. Smith and H. Kersten, “Auxin in Seedlings from X-Rayed Seeds,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 29, 1942, pp. 785-819. doi:10.2307/2437733
[21] C. R. Sastry, C. V. Venkataramu, A. Khan and J. V. Krishna Rao, “Chemical Mutagenesis for Productive Breeding in Mulberry,” Seminar Organised in Commemoration of Silver Jubilee of Central Silk Board, 1974, p. 20.
[22] E. Gray, “Evidence of Phenotypic Plasticity in Mulberry (Morus L.),” Castanea, Vol. 55, 1990, pp. 272-281.
[23] T. L. Abdullah, S. Fakhrurazi and B. M. Nazir, “Changes in Flower Development, Chlorophyll Mutation and Alteration in Plant Morphology of Curcuma alismatifolia by Gamma Irradiation,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1436-1439. doi:10.3844/ajassp.2009.1436.1439
[24] Anon, “Manual on Mutation Breeding,” Technical Report Series, No. 119, IAEA, Vienna, 1977, pp. 169-192.
[25] M. J. Kearsey and H. S. Pooni, “The Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Traits,” Plant Genetic Group School of Biological Science, The University of Birmingham, Chapman and Hall, London, 1996, pp. 381-395.
[26] H. Brunner, “Methods of Induction of Mutations,” Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme, IAEA Laboratories, Seibessdorf, 1995.
[27] A. H. Sparrow, M. J. Moses and R. J. Dubow, “Relationship between Ionizing Radiation in Plants,” Conference on Radioactive Isotopes in Agriculture, East Housing Mich, AEG Rep. T.D, No. 7521, 1952, pp. 125-139.
[28] E. Pollard, “Ionizing Radiation: Effect on Genetic Transcription,” Science, Vol. 146, 1964, pp. 927-929. doi:10.1126/science.146.3646.927
[29] M. Maluszynski, “Mutation Techniques in Plant Breeding,” In: Induced Mutations and Molecular Techniques for Crop Improvement, Proceedings of a Symposium, IAEA and FAO, Vienna, 1995, pp. 489-504.
[30] R. R. Karpate and A. D. Choudhary, “Induced Mutation in Linumusitatissimum L.,” Journal of Cytology and Genetics, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997, pp. 41-48.
[31] M. B. Nazir, O. Mohamad, A. A. Affida and A. Sakinah, “Research Highlights on the Use of Induced Mutations for Plant Improvement in Malaysia,” Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 1998.
[32] K. Hazama, “Adaptability of Mutant in Mulberry Tree,” Gamma Field Symposia, Vol. 7, 1968, pp. 79-85.
[33] K. Katagiri, “Polyploidy Induction in Mulberry by Gamma Radiations,” Mutation Breeding News Letter, Vol. 8, 1976, pp. 11-12.
[34] P. Rao, J. M. M. Rao and N. L. Sarojini, “Mutation Breeding in Mulberry Morus indica L.,” Indian Journal of Botany, Vol.7, No. 1, 1984, pp. 106-111.
[35] A. D. Blonstein and M. D. Gale, “Cell Size and Cell Number in Dwarf Mutants of Barley in Semi Dwarf Cereal Mutants and Their Use in Cross Breeding. II (Teidsc 407),” FAO/IAEA, Vienna, 1984, pp. 19-29.
[36] U. Kuchkarov and K. U. Ogurtsov, “Spontaneous Mutants of Mulberry,” Shelk, Vol. 6, 1987, pp. 3-4.
[37] S. K. Datta and B. K. Banerji, “Gamma Ray Induced Somatic Mutation in Chrysanthemum c.v. ‘Kalyani Mauve’,” Journal of Nuclear Agriculture & Biology, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1993, pp. 19-27.
[38] S. B. Dandin, M. V. Rajan and R. S. Mallikarjunappa, “Mutant Forms in Mulberry (Morus spp.),” Sericologia, Vol.36, No. 2, 1996, pp. 353-358.
[39] A. Abraham and C. A. Ninan, “Genetic Improvement of the Coconut Palm. Some Problems and Possibilities,” Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, No. 28A, 1968, pp. 142-153.
[40] K. Mickaelsen, G. Ahnstrom and W. C. Li, “Genetic Effects of Alkylating Agent in Barley. Influence of PastStorage, Metabolic State and pH of Mutagen Solution,” Heriditas, Vol. 59, 1968, pp. 353-374. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1968.tb02183.x
[41] C. C. Moh, “The Use of Radiation Induced Mutations in Crop Breeding in Latin America and Some Biological Effects of Radiation in Coffee,” The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 13, 1962, pp. 467-475. doi:10.1016/0020-708X(62)90021-2

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.