Responses of Japanese Soybeans to Hypoxic Condition at Rhizosphere Were Different Depending upon Cultivars and Ambient Temperatures


To investigate the soybean (Glycine max Merr.) wet endurance, and the affect of the maturity and the ambient temperature to the response, the plantlet in growth stage ranged from R1 to R2 of 8 Japanese soybean cultivars which characterized as various wet endurance in a past report were cultured under hypoxic-hydroponic condition for a month. Two experiments at different periods differed significantly in temperature of air and hydroponic solution, but the oxygenic condition were similar each experiments, as aimed for. And also, control and hypoxia treatments significantly differed in dissolved oxygenic concentration in each experiments. The hypoxic condition at higher temperature induced the reduction of survival of plantlet up to 70%. At higher temperature, the survival rate of late maturity types Yuzuru and Shirotsurunoko were decreased significantly in hypoxic condition than in control. Similarly, the shoot dry matters of them were also decreased significantly in hypoxia at higher temperature. The tendency of the decreasing in hypoxia was remarkable in the pod dry matter, and the symptoms were shown also at the lower temperature. From these results, soybean’s hypoxic tolerant may be reflected with the wet endurance, the process of hypoxic damages can be divided to sudden death symptom and biomass decreasing, and the mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance might be affected strongly by ambient temperature, and absolutely controlled with the genetic background.

Share and Cite:

Y. Jitsuyama, "Responses of Japanese Soybeans to Hypoxic Condition at Rhizosphere Were Different Depending upon Cultivars and Ambient Temperatures," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 6, 2013, pp. 1297-1308. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.46161.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), Japan, “Soybean Planting Area in 2012 (Dry Yield),” Statistics of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Department of Minister’s Secretariat Statistics, 2012.
[2] T. Mochizuki and S. Matsumoto, “Varietal Differences of Wet Endurance in Autumn Soybean Plants,” Japanese Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1991, pp. 380-384. (In Japanese, with summary in English) doi:10.1626/jcs.60.380
[3] S. Shimada, “Enhancing Soybean Productivity in the Paddy Fields in Japan,” Proceeding of the Congress, International Crop Science Society, 2008.
[4] A. C. Leopold, “Temperature Effects on Soybean Imbibition and Leakage,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 65, No. 6, 1980, pp. 107-109.
[5] X.-H. Tian, T. Nakamura and M. Kokubun, “The Role of Seed Structure and Oxygen Responsiveness in Pre-Germination Flooding Tolerance of Soybean Cultivars,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005, pp. 157-165. doi:10.1626/pps.8.157
[6] H. Sugimoto, “Excess Moisture Injury of Soybean Cultivated in a Drained Paddy Field,” Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Ehime University, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, pp. 75-134. (In Japanese, with summary in English)
[7] N. Nakayama, S. Shimada, M. Takahashi, Y. -H. Kim and J. Arihara, “Effects of Water-Absorbing Rate of Seed on Flooding Injury in Soybean,” Japanese Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2005, pp. 325-329. (In Japanese, with summary in English) doi:10.1626/jcs.74.325
[8] J. L. Griffin and A. M. Saxton, “Response of Solid-Seeded Soybean to Flood Irrigation. II. Flood Duration,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1988, pp. 885-888. doi:10.2134/agronj1988.00021962008000060009x
[9] H. D. Scott, J. De Angulo, M. B. Daniels and L. S. Wood, “Flood Duration Effects on Soybean Growth and Yield,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 81, No. 4, 1989, pp. 631-636. doi:10.2134/agronj1989.00021962008100040016x
[10] D. M. Oosterhuis, H. D. Scott, R. E. Hampton and S. D. Wullschleger, “Physiological Responses of Two Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Cultivars to Short-Term Flooding,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1990, pp. 85-92. doi:10.1016/0098-8472(90)90012-S
[11] F. J. M. Sung, “Waterlogging Effect on Nodule Nitrogenase and Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activities in Soybean,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1993, pp. 183-189. doi:10.1016/0378-4290(93)90152-D
[12] M. Bacanamwo and L. C. Purcell, “Soybean Dry Matter and N Accumulation Responses to Flooding Stress, N Sources and Hypoxia,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 50, No. 334, 1999, pp. 689-696. doi:10.1093/jxb/50.334.689
[13] J. E. Board, “Waterlogging Effects on Plant Nutrient Concentrations in Soybean,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2008, pp. 828-838. doi:10.1080/01904160802043122
[14] S. Shimamura, T. Mochizuki, Y. Nada and M. Fukuyama, “Secondary Aerenchyma Formation and Its Relation to Nitrogen Fixation in Root Nodules of Soybean Plants (Glycine max) Grown under Flooded Conditions,” Plant Production Science, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2002, pp. 294-300. doi:10.1626/pps.5.294
[15] J. E. Plaster, “Soil Is a Medium for Plant Growth,” In: J. E. Plaster, Ed., Soil Science & Management, 2nd Edition, Delmar Publishers Inc., New York, 1992, pp. 6-7.
[16] T. J. Bouma, K. L. Nielsen, D. M. Eissenstat and J. P. Lynch, “Soil CO2 Concentration Does Not Affect Growth or Root Respiration in Bean and Citrus,” Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 12, 1997, pp. 1495-1505. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.1997.d01-52.x
[17] G. Boru, T. Vantoai, J. Alves, D. Hua and M. Knee, “Responses of Soybean to Oxygen Deficiency and Elevated Root-Zone Carbon Dioxide Concentration,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 91, No. 4, 2003, pp. 447-453. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg040
[18] H. Greenway, W. Armstrong and T. D. Colmer, “Conditions Leading to High CO2 (>5 kPa) in Waterlogged- Flooded Soils and Possible Effects on Root Growth and Metabolism,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2006, pp. 9-32. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl076
[19] L. J. Irving, Y. -B. Sheng, D. Woolley and C. Matthew, “Physiological Effects of Waterlogging on Two Lucerne Varieties Grown under Glasshouse Conditions,” Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, Vol. 193, No. 5, 2007, pp. 345-356. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00277.x
[20] I. Matsukawa, Y. Tanimura, R. Teranishi and H. Banba, “Varietal Difference of Resistance to Excess Wet Injury of Soybean in Dry Field Converted from Paddy Rice Field,” Report of Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1983, pp. 32-40. (In Japanese, with summary in English)
[21] F. R. Minchin and J. S. Pate, “Effects of Water, Aeration, and Salt Regime on Nitrogen Fixation in a Nodulated Legume-Definition of an Optimum Root Environment,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 2626, No. 1, 1975, pp. 60-69. doi:10.1093/jxb/26.1.60
[22] M. Sullivan, T. Van Toai, N. Fausey, J. Beuerlein, R. Parkinson and A. Soboyejo, “Evaluating On-Firm Flooding Impacts on Soybean,” Crop Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2001, pp. 93-100. doi:10.2135/cropsci2001.41193x
[23] P. Jones, L. H. Allen and J. W. Jones, “Responses of Soybean Canopy Photosynthesis and Transpiration to Whole-Day Temperature Changes in Different CO2 Environments,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 77, No. 2, 1985, pp. 242-249. doi:10.2134/agronj1985.00021962007700020016x
[24] S. Volker, J. S. Sperry and R. Lafitte, “Embolized Conduits of Rice (Oryza sativa, Poaceae) Refill Despite Negative Xylem Pressure,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 92, No. 12, 2005, pp. 1970-1974. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.12.1970
[25] U. G. Hacke, V. Stiller, J. S. Sperry, J. Pittermann and K. A. McCulloh, “Cavitation Fatigue: Embolism and Refilling Cycles Can Weaken the Cavitation Resistance of Xylem,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 125, No. 2, 2001, pp. 779-786.
[26] D. A. Russell, D. M. L. Wong and M. M. Sachs, “The Anaerobic Response of Soybean,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 92, No. 2, 1990, pp. 401-407. doi:10.1104/pp.92.2.401
[27] J. K. M. Roberts, M. A. Hooks, A. P. Miaullis, S. Edwards and C. Webster, “Contribution of Malate and Amino Acid Metabolism to Cytoplasmic pH Regulation in Hypoxic Maize Root Tips Studied Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 98, No. 2, 1992, pp. 480-487.
[28] C. D. Malcolm, “Oxygen Deficiency and Root Metabolism: Injury and Acclimation under Hypoxia and Anoxia,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1997, pp. 223-250. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.223
[29] T. R. Colette, M. Sutka, H. Javot, E. Gout, P. Gerbeau, D. T. Luu, R. Bligny and C. Maurel, “Cytosolic pH Regulates Root Water Transport during Anoxic Stress through Gating of Aquaporins,” Nature, Vol. 425, No. 6956, 2003, pp. 393-397. doi:10.1038/nature01853
[30] W. G. Choi and D. M. Roberts, “Arabidopsis NIP2;1, a Major Intrinsic Protein Transporter of Lactic Acid Induced by Anoxic Stress,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 282, No. 33, 2007, pp. 24209-24218. doi:10.1074/jbc.M700982200
[31] F. Shi, R. Yamamoto, S. Shimamura, S. Hiraga, N. Nakayama, T. Nakamura, K. Yukawa, M. Hachinohe, H. Matsumoto and S. Komatsu, “Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase 2 (cAPX 2) Is Involved in the Soybean Response to Flooding,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 69, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1295-1303. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.01.007
[32] V. T. Nguyen, T. D. Vuong, T. Van Toai, J. D. Lee, X. Wu, M. A. Rouf Mian, A. E. Dorrance, J. G. Shannon and H. T. Nguyen, “Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Resistance to Phytophthora sojae and Flooding Tolerance in Soybean,” Crop Science, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2012, pp. 2481-2493. doi:10.2135/cropsci2011.09.0466
[33] F. Liu, C. R. Jensen and M. N. Andersen, “Hydraulic and chemical signals in control of leaf expansion and stomatal conductance in soybean exposed to drought stress,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2003, pp. 65-73. doi:10.1071/FP02170
[34] J. E. Specht, D. J. Hume and S. V. Kumindi, “Soybean Yield Potential: A Genetic and Physiological Perspective,” Crop Science, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1999, pp. 1560-1570. doi:10.2135/cropsci1999.3961560x
[35] M. N. Hunter, P. L. M. De Jabrun and D. E. Byth, “Response of Nine Soybean Lines to Soil Moisture Conditions Close to Saturation,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 20, No. 104, 1980, pp. 339-345. doi:10.1071/EA9800339
[36] H. Banba, Y. Tanimura and I. Matsukawa, “A Report of Damage Due to Heavy Rainfall in Pulses in 1981,” Report of the Hokkaido Branch, the Crop Science Society of Japan and Hokkaido Branch, the Japanese Society of Breeding, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1982, p. 55. (In Japanese)

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.